L'Ombre - Medicine For The Meaningless (CD, Album) Label: Ant-Zen Cat#: act Media Condition: Media: Mint (M) Sleeve Condition: Sleeve: Near Mint (NM or M-) Factory sealed, intact cellophane style wrap, jewel case appears to be totally intact with no visible cracks, no drill holes, no other damage.
Factory sealed with hype sticker, has deletion mark on bottom left of spine which doesn't affect tray card, booklet or disc. Factory sealed, has deletion mark on left spine which doesn't affect tray card, disc or booklet. Factory sealed with hype sticker, has deletion hole on left side of spine which affects the tray card but not the booklet or discs.
Deletion scratch through barcode, otherwise all discs and digipak and contents appear NM. Label: Sire , Warner Bros. Records Cat : 9 Label: Interscope Records Cat : B Outer slip has deletion mark on barcode, otherwise digipak, discs and booklet appear NM.
Has deletion mark on bottom left of spine which lightly affects the tray card, doesn't affect the disc or booklet. Factory sealed with hype sticker, has deletion scratch through barcode. Digipak and disc appear NM. Comes with booklet, poster and sticker which all appear NM.
Label: Mercury Cat : B Now I'm living in North Carolina's High Country and surrounded by all sorts of old-time, bluegrass talent.. Victor's book inspires me to relax a I knew of Victor when I lived in Nashville. Victor's book inspires me to relax and feel the groove rather than getting hung up on tabs and rolls. One day I hope to be able to do this in a group setting rather than just joining in with random riffs.
Until then I keep practicing these lessons on learning to glide along and feel the music. Music comes to life and all its elements surround us in concrete ways.
I think this book teaches 'mindfulness' of mystical melodies that are buried in our souls. For musicians and music lovers … there is more than just listening … feel, smell, taste, and see. Experience it! Dec 15, Thor rated it really liked it. The common complaint I've heard about this book is that it is too "New-agey" and though I understand where people are coming from, this book is a really fascinating look at the elements of Music, and, therefore, life.
Take the new-age stuff with a grain of salt, if it isn't your thing, but as a professional musician, it has helped me to return to the source of why i do this. Feb 20, AlmieMeg rated it it was amazing Shelves: growth-evolvement. I had never heard of Victor Whooten until, completely by accident, I stumbled upon an internet discussion of him giving a commentary on his book. I was so captivated by the genuineness of his personality that I knew I had to read this book.
It's a very unique and insightful story, as much about life, as it is about music. As for the story part, it was like stepping into a fairy tale that I desperately wanted to be true. However, the life lessons, as well as the music lessons, really gave me some I had never heard of Victor Whooten until, completely by accident, I stumbled upon an internet discussion of him giving a commentary on his book.
However, the life lessons, as well as the music lessons, really gave me something to think about and to carry with me. I found myself laughing aloud at some of the metaphors because they were so true and easy to relate to.
His personality really comes through in this story to the point that I found myself wishing that he and the main character whom he created in this story were in our circle of friends. I look forward to his next book, irrespective of topic. This is a delightful, deliciously eccentric, insightful and unique story with many life lessons.
It's one of those books that you'll probably either like or you won't, with no in between. I really liked it! Jun 01, pianogal rated it did not like it Shelves: tried-to-read. This book is kinda crap - or maybe I was simply to sober to fully comprehend the genius of Michael. All I needed was a bag of shrooms and a patchouli scented candle and it might have made sense.
Is the stuff being taught worthwhile? Sure, but for me the lessons were SO obvious that it was hard not to laugh out loud at his various unveilings of "genius". You mean music's not just about the notes?!?! I guess I spent too many years in reputable music schools to really appreciate this 'enl This book is kinda crap - or maybe I was simply to sober to fully comprehend the genius of Michael. I guess I spent too many years in reputable music schools to really appreciate this 'enlightened' ahem form of the music learnin'.
I thought about finishing this book I got to about page 80 or so but then I thought about all the other, better things I could do with my time Sep 14, Dexter rated it it was amazing. This camp was recommended to me by the leader of a band I play trumpet in who teaches at the camp sometimes. This camp was my first sleepaway camp experience, and I thought it was the best camp I had ever been to.
During that weeklong experience, I learned more than I have ever learned in a regular month of my life. The camp improved my social skills, and my musical skills. The protagonist in The Music Lesson is Victor Wooten, but lots of the story is not actually things that happened to him, so the book is a fictional memoir. He uses fake events to communicate his ideas about music. This creates drama and draws the reader into his philosophy.
With each thing Michal shows him, I always found myself reading a little slower so I could learn the most. Overall, this book is a story of an ambitious bass player who is lead onto the path of what music can really be. As I journeyed with Victor along this path full of spirituality and excitement, I found myself always wondering if I, too, could discover and follow this path.
This is a book about someone who changes. He moves from musician to teacher, and questioner to believer. It pulls the reader deep into a mysterious and beautiful world. It offers to change the way the reader thinks about music in every way, shape, and form. The Music Lesson is one of the best, most transformative books I have read, and is definitely much more than just a music lesson.
I recommend it to everyone ready to dive deep into an eye-opening world of music. View all 3 comments. Feb 04, Russell rated it liked it.
This is influential bass guitarist Victor Wooten's response to numerous requests he's had to write a music instruction book. Rather than writing a traditional method book, however, Wooten chose a far more novel approach to music instruction. He creates a sort of personal mythology in which strange characters appear to him out of nowhere and take him on unpredictable journeys in which weird little miracles happen.
These events are all for the purpose of teaching him how to be a great musician. The This is influential bass guitarist Victor Wooten's response to numerous requests he's had to write a music instruction book. He then takes Wooten on various adventures that help to teach him about each of these components.
It's difficult to tell how seriously Wooten wants us to take some of these strange stories, which often involve psychics, telepathy, and other such mumbo jumbo. But in spite of the weirdness of the whole thing, there are some very important and insightful music lessons here. And, of course, this is the point of the book. Therefore, I can recommend it to any musician, whether a beginner or advanced player.
Feb 14, KrisAnne rated it it was ok. Pretty dang woo-woo. I wish he'd just taken the important points and made a bulleted list instead of writing a whole book with this weird mystical-teacher-appearing-from-nowhere conceit. I could only read about 5 pages at a time, and I only read it because some of my students have to do a book report on it.
And the ones who were assigned to read it will likely get something out of it, so fine, give this book to your serious late-teens music student who is just learning how to have deep thoughts. View 1 comment. Aug 27, Gary Bryan rated it it was ok Shelves: music. I had been a passable metal guitarist for around a decade, practising just enough to keep up with my bands and knowing the minor scale just enough to kludge together a riff or a solo, but very aware of my musical limitations.
I wanted to move beyond this plateau and become a real Musician like my peers whom I envied, those who simply played what they wanted with little conscious effort. Overwhelmed by everything I still had to learn and unsure of where to begin, however, I just lost motivation a I had been a passable metal guitarist for around a decade, practising just enough to keep up with my bands and knowing the minor scale just enough to kludge together a riff or a solo, but very aware of my musical limitations.
Overwhelmed by everything I still had to learn and unsure of where to begin, however, I just lost motivation and continued to tread water. I asked these accomplished musicians for advice, but received meaningless generalities with no specifics on their application - "just play the notes man", "just feel the groove", "I've always known how to sing" - and in asking for detail I was told I was missing the point and overthinking it. These well-meaning platitudes were a product of unconscious competence: they had spent decades studying and applying technique and theory or playing by ear and developing an unconscious understanding of them to the point where it had become natural, so by that logic I shouldn't have to think about it either.
Needless to say, what got me out of the plateau was not their input, but putting more structure into my practice and addressing the gaps in my knowledge. This Michael character reminded me of these patronising experts and their advice: if it's easy to him, it's easy to you too, and all you need to overcome your limits is a simple shift in perspective.
There were some genuinely insightful ideas, for example that many focus too much on notes including scales and harmony etc. The big obstacle between my ability and Michael's is still simply practice and application of theory. The idea of giving music and life advice through a spiritually-themed story was a clever one, but I felt that the author didn't quite had the writing skill to pull it off so it mostly came across as cheesy and pretentious.
Michael's supernatural powers, while obviously intended as a metaphor, just contributed to the idea that good musicians have something innate that the rest of us lack - the opposite of what a book like this should be teaching. The Music Lesson could provide some great insight to somebody who is quite competent but feels like something is missing: they're playing their instrument but not really playing Music. A beginner or intermediate musician who wishes to avoid falling into that trap could also get something out of it, but it's to take with a large pinch of salt and the understanding that its abstract advice should complement, not replace, conventional practice and study.
Feb 24, Diane rated it it was amazing Shelves: audio , read-your-books , spiritual , memoires. Then they all disappear and he is left wondering what happened. Many of the lessons and aspects of music and making music are familiar to me. But it was presented in a fun and interesting way with great narration and music throughout. Highly recommended, especially to anyone who enjoys making music. Jul 07, Joe rated it really liked it. This is a summer that I plan to begin to focus intensely on music or Music with a capital M as the author refers to it in The Music Lesson.
This is a strange book at first. Wooten sets it up with an encounter with a mysterious music teacher named Michael. He along with another musical mystic are able to heal a man injured in an automobile accident by using sound to realign energy. I recommend this book to anyone interested in Music and spiritual pursuits.
I intend to revisit this book at the end of the summer to reassess my feelings regarding the book and the ideas contained within. Dec 04, Joe Richards rated it it was amazing. My new favourite book on how to approach life, music and spirituality. Having absorbed the lessons presented here as an extended parable, it became clear to this reader that the manner in which one chooses to approach either their life or their music whether listening or playing very much determines the essence and the outcome of the other.
The notions are explored enthusiastically, philosophically and, when venturing towards the New Age, semi-critically. Examples are provided in naturalistic, My new favourite book on how to approach life, music and spirituality.
Examples are provided in naturalistic, universal contexts and, whilst next to nothing is taught on how to actually play an instrument, this is an essential read for any serious musician even bassists who, like me, aren't necessarily drawn to Victor's playing style. Moreover, this is an essential read for anyone looking to explore the deeper qualities, the differences and the broader ideals of musicianship and musicality, as well as for anyone interested in exploring the intertwined relationships between life, music, and nature with their own past, present and future.
A playful, insightful and genuinely rewarding read. Jun 24, Doug rated it really liked it. There are times when this book seems silly and simple. Then there are times when this book seems profound and simple. A great musician shares things he has learned in a fun format. I guess that is up to me.
The highest praise I have is that I am anxious to share it with friends. Lots of truth in this book. Nov 13, Dawn Lennon rated it it was amazing Shelves: non-fiction , music. Music is more than the mechanics of playing an instrument.
Good music instructors don't teach, they show their students the way. That's a key Wooten message. Getting beyond practice and music lessons is what this book offers.
It's not about technique or theory, it's about understanding what Music is, where it resides all around us , and how it manifests itself each time we play. The author's chosen literary "voice" in this book is an other-worldly character, essential in order to take our underst Music is more than the mechanics of playing an instrument. The author's chosen literary "voice" in this book is an other-worldly character, essential in order to take our understanding of Music beyond the mechanics.
As readers, that requires us to "suspend disbelief" in order to be open to receiving the learning that the voice offers. As an adult acoustic guitar beginner, I take lessons from a professional musician who injects beyond-the-mechanics insights as he shows me how to play. While seriously committed to the disciplines of notes and rhythms, he, like the voice in Wooten's book, never lets his students forget that music is magic. As a student, I've tried too hard to "get it right" as I practiced, but from Wooten's book, I've benefited from the advice to "try easy" along with and endless insights and aha moments that have had a calming influence on my approach to learning.
Wooten addresses the "big" issues about learning music like notes, duration, technique, tempo, tone and rests. He vividly connects the reader with the music that exists in silence, in nature, and in the human body. There are incidences described that seem impossible, but are they really or is it our own limited understanding of ourselves and life, even an intellectual arrogance, that are in the way? It's a wonderful book that tests our ability to approach this topic from multiple intellectual and spiritual levels.
I intend to reread it routinely. Dec 07, Tandava Brahmachari rated it it was amazing Shelves: spiritual-fiction , music. An excellent book for anyone who wants to stop playing their instrument and start playing Music. Full of absolute gems -- of both musical and spiritual principles -- for expanding your awareness and consciousness, and experiencing not only Music but Life differently. A quick and easy read, but with lots of food for thought.
Very reminiscent of books like Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah or Way of the Peaceful Warrior: A Book That Changes Lives in the theme of eccentric spiritual t An excellent book for anyone who wants to stop playing their instrument and start playing Music.
Very reminiscent of books like Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah or Way of the Peaceful Warrior: A Book That Changes Lives in the theme of eccentric spiritual teacher imparting life-changing wisdom to a surprised student. In fact there was a pretty explicit nod to Illusions with the biplane reference early on, which amused me.
If you like those books and you like music, you're good to go here. Though if you're uncomfortable with things getting too "woo woo" New-Agey, you might want to think twice see some of the less positive reviews. To be honest, I was originally going to dock this a star for the writing, which I'm afraid the author is not as adept at as music.
That distracted me at first I just wanted to edit it as I went along , but once I got into it I found myself enjoying it too much to be that miserly with the rating. Just follow some of the early advice in the book: get into the groove of it and don't worry too much about the notes or in this case, words.
Mar 25, Trisha rated it liked it. Victor Wooten is a Grammy award winning musician whose quirky little book isn't just about music. As the subtitle suggests it's also about living intentionally and while I was less than impressed with Wooten's writing which can be a little too trite and cutesy the book was not entirely without merit. It's structured around a set of lessons intended to illustrate 10 important characteristics of good musicianship as explained by a mysterious cast of over-the-top characters who appear and disappear Victor Wooten is a Grammy award winning musician whose quirky little book isn't just about music.
It's structured around a set of lessons intended to illustrate 10 important characteristics of good musicianship as explained by a mysterious cast of over-the-top characters who appear and disappear as the narrative progresses.
Despite what felt like an overabundance of metaphors, analogies, parables and anecdotes, I liked the way Wooten kept using his knowledge as a musician to talk about what it means to live in a mindful way I suspect he's a Buddhist! Instead of worrying about the mistakes they've just made or the difficult passage that's about to come up, musicians need to simply focus on what they're playing at the moment. Notes aren't the most important things -- it's the music that counts. Instead of thinking about playing an instrument it's better to concentrate on making music.
It's all good advice regardless of whether we're musicians or not. Mar 08, John rated it liked it Shelves: memoir , philosophy , self-help. It's hard to decide what to think of this book. Taken literally it is a woo-woo Carlos Castaneda mystical BS-story. But stepping back there is some lovely stuff about attention, heart, deliberate practice including when not to bother , and how to think about and feel what's going on musically.
I suspect that anyone who has played for any length of time will find parts of it obvious, but I also suspect that almost everyone will come away with something new. Aug 08, Brian Hutzell rated it liked it Shelves: music. Wooten has some valuable tips to offer but I found his advice diluted by the corny New Age framing story.
May 22, Tobin Elliott marked it as did-not-finish Shelves: self-improvement , audiobook , non-fiction , music. Landscaping and Marchand are the guideposts to the next stage in this series, the royal site established centuries earlier at Aranjuez, where the River Jarama flows into the Tagus. The campaign to refurbish the compound had begun in under the leadership of the master builder appointed to Aranjuez in , Pedro Caro Idrogo, whose wideranging profile included architectural and military engineering skills.
The commission entailed finishing the building planned by Philip II to replace the former Order of Santiago monastery, still standing in the early eighteenth century, along with less than one-half of the building originally envisaged.
As construction was resumed on the palace, a landscaped area was designed to flank the east wing of the building: a third parterre following on the ones at Buen Retiro and La Granja A drawing signed by Master Idrogo for a tiered circular dam in the riverbed close to the northern wing of the palace is still intact Like others of his fairly imprecise designs, the most outstanding of which may be a new set of stairs for the central part of the palace, featuring two symmetrical semi-circular staircases, this sole graphic testimony for the dam denotes little more than elementary drafting skills.
Different shades of red differentiate the older and recently built areas, while the new stairs are shown in yellow. The graphic and architectural quality of these drawings would seem to indicate that they were not authored by the local master, but rather by Marchand, who was assigned to the works at Aranjuez in late Far from competing, however, the two apparently worked together harmoniously in a cooperative spirit that more than likely permeated the design and construction of the eastern parterre, the draw-.
Floor plan and cross-section of Aranjuez Palace in Like Carlier and Pallota before them, Idrogo and Marchand died within less than a year of one another: the former in December and the latter in November Design for eastern parterre, Aranjuez Palace, July Madrid, General Palace Archives, No.
General grounds, La Granja de San Ildefonso ca By that time the palace had already been enlarged to the guidelines of painter and architectural theorist Andrea Procaccini along with one of his assistants, architect and painter Sempronio Subisati From to the young Spanish engineer drafted a superb cartography of the place that attested to the status of the palatial compound and its grounds and contained as well the earliest indications of the birth of the adjacent town [FIG.
Note the squares between it and the gate into the royal site, skirted by exedra and twin buildings with a certain institutional air. The first such territorial scale document, authored by engineer Sebastian de Rodolphe in , depicts two dimensions: present status and design for future intervention [FIG.
Broadly speaking, local master builders attained a certain proficiency in architectural drawing, while their territorial renditions exhibited significant shortcomings. It is attributed to Gian Battista Novello, who supposedly received some architectural training prior to his residence in Spain from to Map of Batuecas Woodlands with plan view and cross-section of Batuecas Palace in Nangle, who earned his associate engineering diploma in , was promoted to lieutenant in and to full engineer status in After an initial post at Catalonia and a presumed assignment in Cuba, he appears in connection with the building of the Guadarrama Road in The sculptures were authored by Gian Domenico Olivieri and the iron work by master Francisco Moradillo.
This gate was but the climax of the design for a new circular enclosure around El Pardo, designed and budgeted by the engineer himself shortly before his death in , and built during the rest of the decade. Although they constitute a digression from the core theme of this chapter, the attractive drawings showing the military manoeuvres normally conducted north and east of Madrid are certainly relevant to the city and its immediate surrounds.
In a way, these drawings can be viewed as a preview of and supplement to the huge map of Madrid dedicated to the Count of Aranda published in Authored by engraver Antonio Espinoso de los Monteros, the ideologue and director for that endeavour. The scale used was in keeping with the standard sponsored by the military and signed by the Count of Aranda on 31 January Tracking down the elusive Hermosilla and backpedalling 10 years sets this narrative against the backdrop of El Escorial.
New plan and elevation views and cross-sections for the monastery were signed at Madrid on 12 March by engineers Baltasar Ricaud and Bernardo Fillera. Four of the elevation drawings and three of the cross-sections have been located relatively recently24 [FIG. Although no explicit evidence is in place, there is every indication that these drawings were the result of an undertaking supervised by Hermosilla to document the grandiose building as the beginning of a new approach to.
Work began in by Hermosillo himself with the assistance and cooperation of two young architects, Juan Pedro Arnal and Juan de Villanueva Baltasar Ricaud de Tirgalle26 was in all likelihood born between and ; he was appointed draughtsman in and full engineer in The record shows that after concluding his task in and with the disappearance of the Madrid school, he devoted considerable effort to drawing the western Biscay and central Mediterranean coasts and participated in the Algiers campaign headed by Silvestre Abarca in That the latest known of this series of drawings dates from stands as proof of his long life.
Less is known about Bernardo Fillera: the only proven fact is that on 22 October he was appointed draughtsman and posted at Catalonia The inference is that he would be from 10 to 15 years younger than Ricaud. Little more is known about the subsequent activity of the Catalonian engineer, except for an intriguing fact that leads, again, to where the River Jarama runs into the Tagus. On 14 December Bernardo Fillera received orders to remove to the royal site at Aranjuez to undertake a new graphic campaign, probably as a result of his work at El Escorial Despite this promising start, perhaps due to the change of reign or other unknown reasons, this initiative was apparently very short-lived.
Fifteen years later, however,. Topography of the Royal Site at Aranjuez, overall plan view. Aranjuez Madrid , One year later he finished his graphic and literary narrative of the properties owned by the San Juan Priory at Consuegra, likewise in the province of Toledo.
His purportedly globalising image of the royal site was clearly a propagandistic portrayal of its new status, in which traditional recreational and leisure-time activities were combined with palace enlargement and consolidation of the adjacent town, and with the agricultural and husbandry experiments encouraged by Charles III.
After finishing his mission at Aranjuez, Aguirre was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Infantry in At around the same time, he appears to have decided to create a graphic narrative for certain elements in the city of Madrid, whether as part of an official task or a personal initiative is unclear.
Two external views of the city depicting two of its gates appeared two years later, in Madrid A curious and appealing view, unsigned and undated but attributable to Domingo de Aguirre30, has recently appeared.
This oil on canvas overview of the eastern front of the city taken from Retiro Park measures an unusual x mm, in contrast to the conventional size and proportions of the aforementioned drawings [FIG. The final years of the life of this last royal site engineer and draughtsman were fairly peculiar. By his grandson Charles III was near death and the dynasty would continue in the person of his son, who embarked on the turn of the century abruptly and with no clear loadstar.
The spatial interim serves to complete this tour over time aimed to identify what has changed and what has remained the same in the built environment. One of the immense virtues of drawing is that, thanks to its testimonial value, it enables the viewer to participate in this engaging process.
More than planned, it appears to be the sum of a series of personal skills which, in their interaction with traditional local building agents, induced a sort of positive fermentation. This sectoral review obviously fits into a more general dynamic in the context of progress in the age of enlightenment.
State centralisation and new civil and military structures, in this case the Academy of the Three Noble Arts of Drawing and the military academies, acted in parallel both educationally and strategically speaking to control the physical medium at the territorial, urban and architectural scales. Academe delimited and structured the artistic professions painting, sculpture and architecture , whilst the military academies, in addition to attending to their specific martial interests, imposed control and interven-.
Between these two realms, the overlap in architectural action and land use design, in what was to come to be known as the problem of professional attributions, set the stage for the well-known future conflict between engineers and architects that raged with considerable intensity throughout the nineteenth century That would diminish the impact of personal authorship.
It is as if a huge hand stemming from their esprit de corps guided the ideas and pen strokes originating in the minds and hands of its individual members. From to , Marchand shared posts and missions with Pallota. AGP Maps of El Pardo and El Escorial, respectively. CAPEL, , pp. AGS M. CAPEL, , p. Caylus Gallery. SILVA ed. El Ochocientos. De los lenguajes al patrimonio. The conceptual guidelines of this study deal with the achievement of the institutional will of the Bourbon Spanish monarchy, since its inception after War of the Spanish Succession, in order to establish a standardized organizational procedures and methods of spatial representation by military professionals, basically engineers and draftsmen, in terms of mapping processes used throughout this technical-artistic discipline.
The contribution, based mainly on documentary sources, focuses its analysis on the institutional and regulatory mechanisms of the process during the first half of the eighteenth Century in Spain, which actually is a first approach to a larger research on mapping initiatives and activity of military engineers around the representation of space in different ways.
This work shows the difficulties that existed to organize a universal frame of reference prior to a further corporate consolidation2. Once the War of the Spanish Succession came to the Iberian Peninsula in , with the parallel structuring of the Bourbon Army, those responsible for this faction realised the advantage of channelling the organisation of specialist corps in terms of fortification and theories of attack and defence thereof. Given this provisional situation and certain lack of factual control when distributing professional responsibilities — reinforced by the extraordinary military conflict between the French Bourbons and Austrian Hapsburgs — the drawing up of ordinances to establish these functions and the specific nature of work to be undertaken with members of the Corps of Engineers was essential.
The first such Ordenanza, from , established the terms applicable to the tasks to be carried out from an institutional, administrative and technical point of view, which would be respected in the subsequent reviews published in and , with the corresponding adaptations to the new times and technological advances.
The Ordinance on the Teaching of Mathematics in also concerned itself with cartographic questions, an important aspect in the study plan put forward by the Royal Academies of Mathematics Barcelona, Oran and Ceuta , with its training programmes for the recruitment of skilled map- and plan-making staff.
Real Ordenanza, e Instruccion de 4 de Julio de para los Ingenieros, y otras personas, dividida en dos partes Analysis of the text allows us to establish a structure of the various parameters and concepts considered to be essential to the organisation of the professional duties of the Spanish Army Corps of Engineers. Good planning means significant savings by eliminating unnecessary expenses, although the unification of criteria ensures the universality of procedures and the homogeneity of mechanisms of intervention on the ground, despite the enormous variability of material conditions geological, edaphological, climatic etc.
The use of a standardised language should impede varying interpretations which depend on the different. Los montes que se demuestran son de tierra lo bastante Elevados y Cubiertos de Arboles. No place specified [in situ], MPD, 59, The underlying intention in the cartographic instruction given to engineers was primarily linked to the representation of territory and the elements integrated therein, both natural and artificial.
The Army Corps of Engineers had very few among their number who could undertake such a task, to which we should add their short existence. They basically depended on the work carried out on the ground in. No place specified [in situ], no date specified . On the advice of his ministers, King Philip V, himself of French origin, chose to adapt the Gallic-Bourbon system to suit Spanish conditions — more specifically those experienced in Castile — with a model that reflected a new concept of a centralised State, still somewhat influenced by the Italian influence in the court, a circumstance that was also related to the presence of the Spanish monarchy in Italian lands The arguments in favour of such standardisation were set out in Point 26, indicating that by using.
MPD, 25, Plano de la Ysla Yris en la Costa de Africa. No place specified [Malaga], no date specified [c. The criteria behind the reflections set out in the Ordinance covered both civil and military matters The reflections expressed in the regulations clearly delimited the principle objectives behind the Ordinance [TABLE 1]. Finally, instruction shall be given in all matters pertaining to the notion of the role of Military Buildings required in a fortified enclosure.
Students shall be taught the way to prepare specific Plans and Maps of Provinces: the way to distinguish and represent on paper cultivated and uncultivated land, Forests, Ravines, Roads, Mountains, Outcrops, Coastlines, Rivers, Marshes, Houses, Gardens and Smallholdings.
Also instruction in Trenches, Batteries, investment and circumvallation lines in fortified enclosures, providing them with detailed designs of all manner of instruments for Sappers, Ricks, and Fences, Defensive Shields and Bolsters: how to make and use them, with all other operations that employ them, the defence of fortifications, Encampments, Army battle plans, with all the corresponding colours, the enlargement and reduction of Plans, scale reduction, the way to take and delineate a view of a fortified enclosure or terrain, in order to represent these on paper in a natural manner and generally the form of pro-.
Citadelle No place specified [Barcelona], no date specified . MPD, 08, Puerta Principal de La Ciudadella de Barcelona. No place specified [Barcelona], no date specified [c. The relationships between these should be accompanied by the reasoning behind them and the advantages that follow on from execution.
The Director of Drawing shall teach and explain all required Design, on the approval of the Inspector and the Director General of the Academy, ensuring that they copy said instruction, with the assistance of the spoken voice. The Ordenanza offers no particular details of how maps and plans should be prepared, as such specifications would be taught during the drawing course. The text also stresses the importance that the War Secretary gave to graphic training of those aspiring to become engineers or those engineers who wished to perfect their drawing skills.
In order to prevent complications in carrying out orders and facilitating the teaching dynamic, those responsible in the military hierarchy and at the Treasury the Captain General, Overseers, etc. In corporate terms, the implication of engineers was of fundamental importance in stimulating the processes of development and improvement of map-making methods and techniques.
These actions were channelled in practice by the competent authorities — either by institutions overseeing engineers both general and provincial , or by the Royal Board of Fortifications in Madrid15 —, the War Secretary and the military leaders at the various general headquarters Here we should highlight Royal initiatives to create map- and model-making collections at various points during the eighteenth century.
Toward the end of the following decade, in , the same engineer from Marseille took charge of compilFIG. Plano del Castillo y Villa de ing an ambitious collection of maps Cardona con sus contornos. Barcelona, 15 January Under the governCH, Atlas These ventures, comparable to others led by the French monarchy from the seventeenth century onward, did not achieve their desired aims Surrounding these matters, a major controversy arose among the various authorities who went to some lengths to point out the shortcomings of the members of the Corps, or those aspiring to join it, in reaching the required standard of cartographic excellence, in all but a few cases.
Both from the point of view of the cartographic design and the academic context that should ensure the excellence of the engineers, the problems were nevertheless constant in the quest to establish standardised control over professional mechanisms and the particular circumstances of each individual. Essentially this is because, with the exception of the Barcelona Academy and its counterparts in Oran and Ceuta, the integrated training of engineers, both theoretical and practical, including the ambivalent attitude toward drawing, with the difficulties experienced in each province proved to be extremely problematic.
Fortress with points of attack. No place specified [Madrid], no date specified . MPD, 31, It is important to bear in mind that the training of engineers in fortification and theories of attack and defence was firmly based on knowledge of such techniques through the study of detailed illustrations, a factor that would become clear some years later with the institutionalisation of the exams to join the Corps of Engineers and the Inspection of the Artillery [FIGS.
As far as the importance of drawing to professional activities of the engineers, there were numerous questions raised, both within and outside the Academy of Mathematics. This lack of independence among those aspiring to be draughtsmen meant that the search for capable hands was a long one. The spector. The engineer Bernardo Fernando Lasala consolidated his position at the Academy of Mathematics, years later taking charge of further duties concerning wooden models used to complement other teaching material in certain subjects.
There was no let-up in the attempts to recruit engineers to teach drawing and other subjects at the Academy of Mathematics. Lleida, October A matter of special importance regarding the content of the material linked to the drawing class and the pedagogical methods used by the first director of the Barcelona Academy of Mathematics ensured that tension was maintained for over a decade between him and a number of military engineers, including Verboom.
Mateo Calabro appealed directly to the War Secretary to take steps to raise the level of the students in terms of the academic skills, thus training a new generation of engineers who were adept in the art of drawing and cartography.
This art can never be attained by an engineer or soldier who is unaware of the area of Mathematic expressed above. The art of colouring has no greater mystery than the fantasy of any man, because this art which is only a counsel to Engineers and in some cases merely accidental , is no more than applying colour to Edifice, Machine and Encampment as plotted by the engineer in order to reveal of what materials they are made.
For those with intelligence this requires little time, although some may need much longer to prepare themselves in the fine taste of applying colours, while others may never achieve it with respect to those who have thus been described as accidental , as I have seen in my Students, to whom I have taught colouring having procured to educate them in the spirit of the areas of Mathematics that a good draughtsman requires.
Drawing is an onerous task, while colouring is most enjoyable, something that I should remind Your Excellency, at the service of His Majesty, is useful for Academy Students. After the failure of the siege to expel the English from Gibraltar, the Chief of Engineers was called to Madrid to discuss matters relating to the Corps, where he remained until before finally returning to Barcelona.
During this period, the Flemish engineer received orders to suggest reforms to the Engineers Ordinance, as it seemed to be increasingly causing greater problems to its members, both in questions of discipline and in matters of professional training.
Carrillo highlighted the need to create a specific body to oversee the production of graphic material relating to military projects throughout the Kingdom, the Royal Board of Fortifications. Faced with this new challenge of a strictly graphic nature yet nonetheless of great importance , the instructions sought to be clear and specific.
The total height of the paper shall be two feet and five inches. With this technical-administrative initiative — parallel to the establishment of close centralised control over the ordinary intake of engineers through a series of standardised exams which were, in the main, sat at the Academy of Mathematics before members of the Board of Fortifications — the door was opened to greater institutional strictness and control by the War Secretary in the setting up of the Corp.
In the first major reform of the Ordinances was instigated under the command of the King-. The creation in of the Board of Fortifications in Madrid and the replacement of Calabro as director of the Barcelona Academy with the Asturian Pedro Lucuze in — both of which were signs of the new air that Montemar was blowing through the ministry — were the two determining factors in ensuring the reorientation of the Army Corps of Engineers educational disciplinary panorama, as well as the activities related to construction and cartographic work [FIG.
Cartagena, 3 October MPD, 20, The abbreviations used when quoting source material from the archives are as follows: GMAM. WS Simancas General Archive. War Secretariat. Given the particular characteristics of this work, which was envisaged as a piece of research based almost solely on archival documentary material, there are not too many bibliographical references, as they would only serve to reiterate the material which is largely cited from other publications.
For this reason we will be mentioning such works — which are of unquestionable scientific value — in general terms, where appropriate. WS, Real Ordenanza, BONET et al. Compared to an architect, who may also have championed a process of technical transformation in this field, the engineer — both civil and military — confers greater importance on ensuring continuity between cause and effect than on the project itself.
PICON, Ordenanzas, Planos del Archivo. DE LAS. Un estudio sobre la. Madrid, Fundacion Carlos de Amberes. Para los Ingenieros, y otras personas, dividida. En la segunda se expressan los reconocimientos, tanteos, y formalidades con que se han de executar las obras nuevas, y los reparos que fueren precisos en las Fortificaciones, Almacenes, Quarteles, Muelles, y otras Fabricas Reales, y sobre conservacion de las Plazas, y Puertos de Mar, in J.
Pour une approche pragmatique des productions. DE coord. La obra de los ingenieros militares, Madrid, Ministerio de. Nuevas aportaciones a la historia de su legado cien-. Siglos XVI. La Ciudadela. Fallimento e mancata. Revista de la.
Una responsabilidad constructiva. I, pp. NADAL eds. Tomo Quarto. Subdividido en Tres Tratados de Orden de S. Paris, Presses de. Internacional de Historia de la Medicina Catalana, Barcelona, no publisher specified , pp. Madrid, Ministerio de Defensa. Atti del Convegno: Genova, Imperia, Albenga,. Savona, La Spezia. VII, t. This article explores the possibilities of drawing as a tool for the technical characterization of fortification and explains its use on the studies published by the author in the last 25 years.
A drawing-based research methodology is systematized after considering an initial intuitive reflection: if drawing is the key to designing fortifications, drawing should be the key to interpreting them. Various examples are studied in order to analyze the different types of information available, the analysis tools based on drawing accuracy and fortification principles, and the methodological development of various graphic techniques.
Bastioned fortification, technical drawing, surveying, line of defence, photo restoration of historical layouts, geometric characterization of fortification. It is this role of drawing, that of explaining and demonstrating rather than representing, that is of paramount interest to us here.
Any attempt at a history of fortification, not just a technical history nor one written by architects, requires that drawing be placed at the heart of many questions. For da Vinci, drawing was a project and calculation tool. If we want to understand the designs of military engineers and architects we have to use drawing with the same criteria and function that they do.
It is therefore not enough to observe the final layout of a fort or its drawing in an atlas. It is really surprising to see what we can deduce from a design or its modifications simply by calculating and plotting its embrasures, as we did with the town walls in Ibiza or at Berlanga fort. Knowing, as was the case with planimetric surveys of fortresses, what it is we are looking for and the accuracy we need in order to find it is an essential question that is often overlooked.
In other cases, it is the drawings and historical documents which provide us with these interpretative keys, either based on drawings with no text which we need to interpret, or on texts without drawings which we can plot to make them clearer4. At the end of the process, the technical characterisa-. Layout of the glacis, measurement of the levelled ground and calculation of the yield from the excavation of a moat to determine cost. Madrid II Codex.
Spanish National Library. Study of constructed reality through analysis of defensive fire Ibiza y Berlanga. COBOS, and Only by drawing and measuring will we be able to identify the enormous differences that exist, for example, between two forts with a square floor plan with four apparently very similar bastions.
Thus the first premise behind our work is that we need to understand technical characterisation as a way of overcoming an analysis by type with drawing as our main tools. Data Graphic and Written Documents In order to establish an approach to graphic analysis of fortification we should first consider the type of data we have.
Firstly we have graphic and written documents that we can use in our graphic analysis, in the case of plans and drawings through measurement and georectification processes as well as the transfer to plans, in the case of texts, when referring to measured dimensions and proportions.
For example, the measurements of the piecework performed in the bastion of the Magdalena in Fuenterrabia which can still be seen at Simancas and the French plans for the bastion which are held in the Vincennes archive which allow us, with the help of an intermediate drawing, to plot both documents to a known scale, establishing the construction process and chronology of each section of the structure5.
MPD, 09, MPD, 16, COBOS, However, there are also drawings and written documents that do not describe real situations but rather concepts. Da Vinci, and especially his Madrid II Codex, is a good example of that, although it has not always been correctly interpreted. However, this only meant that Leonardo was there. In fact, if we look more closely at the drawing it seeks to compare the different levels of water pressure at the outlet and the distance it travels depending on the height of the water column that the plan shows for each outlet.
Another example of this conceptual drawing is the design of a fortress whose upper front features a straight flat curtain wall while the lower front has a scissor-wall tenaille [FIG.
This drawing, which we have normally used as a point of reference for the design of hill forts10, nevertheless is a comparison of bastioned fronts as well as being an expression of a concept of design, that of a front consisting of a curtain wall, two opposing flanks and the faces of two bastions, which is essential in the understanding of bastioned fortification and was expressed with total clarity in the seventeenth century.
Prepared by the author. The Existing Reality, the Physical Setting and the Building We also have the constructed reality, the urban setting, the territory and our ability to measure and represent it. In the case of fortresses from the first Spanish Renaissance, there was a total absence of sufficiently accurate plans when we embarked on these studies 25 years ago.
If we want to understand fortification from this period, we need to examine the reasonably accurate plans for the castles at Mota, Coca and Salsas In many cases, such a precise understanding required that a large number of the important fortresses from the period were excavated or cleared and therefore accessible.
It can therefore be said that without the clearing and excavation work at key buildings such as Mota, Behovia, Fuenterrabia and Arevalo12 or the surveying and preparation of scale drawings that we have undertaken or had done for us over these two and a half decades, as well as at other key sites, such as the bastions at the Alhambra in Granada, at Carmona and Niebla13, we would not have the necessary resources for analysis, in a field in which stylistic allegiance is never a suitable tool to work with On a greater scale, and in terms of the major projects undertaken in the late 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, for which we have historical plans that are far more sophisticated and accurate, the generalisation and availability of surveying via aerial orthophotography and the precision offered by georeferencing by satellite over the past ten.
Tools We use two basic tools in our graphic analysis with these two data types. Graphic representation, dependent on the reliability of the document and the accuracy of our survey and the technical principals of fortification which explain layout even though the plans do not reflect this or orientate us toward what we need to define in our surveying. It also allows us to interpret the references that the project engineer Calvi gave regarding the dissociation between the grade line of the bulwark and the opening on the embrasure on the opposing flank through the chamfering of the rock and the alteration to this grade line since construction.
The problem of the layout in relation to the direction of enemy fire is one of the areas where graphic analysis is essential in order to understand the relationship between available sources and the principals of fortification. Finally, we have the drawing that we have produced to explain why La Goulette was lost in , due to the fact that its design meant that the Turks could fire into the embrasures on the flanks.
The source here is a detailed written account of the assault process that the Duke of Alba received from an informant that has allowed us to graphically represent the defensive problem [FIG.
The Technical Principles of Fortification We have finally been able to use drawing to graphically express certain basic concepts of fortification which would otherwise be difficult to understand. The schema showing the variations which we have produced to explain seventeenth century fortification19 [FIG. On the one hand, we have the variation of the flanked angle in relation to the use of the second flank or the measurement of the primary flank, while on the other is a parallel debate concerning measurement variations to the line of defence if we take the side of the polygon as a fixed measurement or the variation in the measurement of the side of the polygon if the fixed measurement was the line of defence.
Using the different types of data and analysis tools at our disposal, there are a number of methods that we can employ in our graphic analysis of fortifications. We have mainly used three in this research: photo restoration of historical layouts compared to existing reality, drawing as comparative analysis and technical characterisation through the use of drawing tools.
The following are a few examples of this. Photo Restoration Applying historical plans to a true-to-scale representation of the current terrain in order to recognise or analyse their design or remains is a strategy that has considerable potential.
In the Master Plan for the border fortresses along the River Minho21, for the first time we had reasonably accurate continuous satellite surveying of the terrain and the dozens of fortifications built in the seventeenth century along the frontier. The work process [FIG.
COBOS y COBOS, y The historical map of Ciudad Rodrigo, , Atlas Masse. Castillo de Vincennes, Paris.
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