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Since excess power was available, heavy water could be purified from the existing electrolyte. Norsk Hydro became the heavy-water supplier for the world's scientific community, as a by-product of fertilizer production for which the ammonia was used.
French research considered the production of Pu using reactors moderated by heavy water and graphite. Preliminary French research indicated that the graphite then available commercially was not pure enough to serve the purpose, and heavy water would be required.
The German research community had reached a similar conclusion, and had procured additional heavy water from Vemork in January Norsk Hydro general director Axel Aubert agreed to lend the heavy water to France for the duration of the war, noting that if Germany won the war he would probably be shot.
Transportation was difficult, since the Abwehr German military intelligence was present in Norway and had been alerted of ongoing French activities in Norway although they were not specifically warned about heavy water.
If they had become aware of the shipment, they might have tried to intercept it. Joliot-Curie moved it to Bordeaux , where it, research papers and most of the scientists Joliot-Curie remained in France boarded the British tramp steamer Broompark one of the many merchant ships involved in saving over , troops and civilians in the three weeks after the Dunkirk evacuation. The ship already had industrial diamonds, machinery and a number of British evacuees aboard. The Broompark delivered its passengers and cargo, including the global stockpile of heavy water, to Falmouth, Cornwall on 21 June.
Crucial to the success of the mission was the role played by Charles Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk. Although the supply of heavy water had been removed, the plant was capable of producing more. The Norsk Hydro management's collaboration with the Germans was examined during investigations of collaborationism begun by Norwegian authorities after the war, but Aubert's cooperation with the French aided the company's case.
There were two operations; the first Operation Grouse would drop a number of Norwegians in the area as an advance force. When they were in place, a party of British engineers would be landed by military glider to attack the plant itself Operation Freshman. Since they had to ski a long distance to the plant from their drop point in the wilderness, considerable time was allotted for Operation Grouse.
Unlike previous failed plans, Grouse required the team to memorize blueprints. The British were suspicious, because the Norwegian Grouse team were delayed in contacting SOE team; the Norwegians had been dropped at the wrong place, however, and had gone off course several times.
The secret question was, "What did you see in the early morning of a day? The towing of gliders, always hazardous, was worse in this case because of the long flight distance to Norway and poor visibility.
One of the Halifax tugs crashed into a mountain, killing all seven aboard; its glider cast off but crashed nearby, resulting in several casualties. Although the other Halifax arrived at the vicinity of the landing zone, the zone could not be precisely identified because the link between the Eureka ground and Rebecca aircraft radar beacons failed.
After many tries and with fuel running low, the Halifax pilot decided to abort the operation and return to base. Shortly afterward, the tug and glider experienced heavy turbulence and the tow rope broke. The glider crash-landed near the crash site of the other glider, killing and injuring several more people.
The Norwegians were unable to reach the crash sites in time; the survivors were captured by the Gestapo , who tortured and later had them executed under Adolf Hitler 's Commando Order. The unsuccessful raid alerted the Germans to Allied interest in their heavy-water production. British authorities, aware that the Grouse team was still operational, decided to mount another operation with them; by this time, the Grouse team was known as Swallow.
They landed successfully, and found the Swallow team after a few days of searching on cross-country skis. The combined team made final preparations for their assault, scheduled for the night of 27—28 February Supplies required by the commandos were dropped with them in special CLE containers.
One container was buried in the snow by a Norwegian patriot to hide it from the Germans; he later recovered it, and gave it to an officer of the British Army Air Corps which was conducting exercises in the area in August After the failed Freshman attempt, the Germans placed mines, floodlights, and additional guards around the plant. Although the mines and lights remained in place, security at the plant had weakened over the winter. The force decided to descend into the ravine, ford the icy river and climb the steep hill on the far side.
The winter river level was very low, and on the far side where the ground leveled they followed a single railway track straight into the plant without encountering any guards. Even before Grouse landed in Norway, SOE had a Norwegian agent in the plant who supplied detailed plans and schedules. The demolition party used this information to enter the main basement by a cable tunnel and through a window.
The only person they encountered in the plant was a Norwegian caretaker named Johansen, who was very willing to cooperate with them. The saboteurs then placed explosive charges on the heavy-water electrolysis chambers, and attached a fuse which allowed sufficient time for their escape. In an attempt to avoid reprisals, a Thompson submachine gun    was purposely left behind to indicate that this was the work of British forces and not the local resistance.
When the fuses were about to be lit, the caretaker was worried about his spectacles which were somewhere in the room; during the war, new eyeglasses were nearly impossible to obtain. A frantic search ensued; the spectacles were found, and the fuses lit. The explosive charges detonated, destroying the electrolysis chambers. The raid was considered successful. The attack halted production for several months, although it did not permanently damage the Vemork plant.
The plant was repaired by April; SOE concluded that a repeat commando raid would be extremely difficult, since German security was considerably improved. The plant was attacked in November by a massive daylight bombing raid of B heavy bombers , which dropped bombs. Although the raid caused extensive damage, at least bombs missed the plant.
On 16 and 18 November, 35 B heavy bombers from the nd Bomber Group based at Wendling, Station extensively attacked the hydro-electric power station at Rjukan. The Germans, convinced that air raids would result in further serious damage, decided to abandon the plant and move its remaining stocks and critical components to Germany in Knut Haukelid the only trained commando in the immediate area was informed of the German plan to remove the heavy water, and was advised to muster support and destroy the shipment.
Haukelid recruited two people, and they decided to sabotage a ferry which would be carrying the heavy water across Lake Tinn. One of his recruits recognized a ferry-crew member and spoke with him, taking an opportunity to slip into the bottom of the ship, plant the bomb and slip away.
The ferry and its cargo sank in deep water shortly after its departure around midnight on 20 February Witnesses reported seeing steel drums floating after the ferry sank, leading to speculation that they did not really contain heavy water; an examination of records after the war showed that some barrels were only half-full, however, and would have floated. A few may have been salvaged and transported to Germany. Despite the mission's intention to minimize casualties, 18 people were killed; 29 survived.
The dead were 14 Norwegian crew and passengers and four German soldiers. A expedition retrieved a barrel, numbered "26", from the bottom of the lake. The concentration of heavy water in a number of the barrels was too small to be of value to a weapons program, however, which might explain the lack of tight security around the shipment and why the ferry was not searched for bombs.
The Hydro was carrying too little heavy water to supply one reactor, let alone the 10 or more tons of heavy water needed to make enough plutonium for a nuclear weapon. The historical consensus about the German nuclear weapons program is that it was a long way from producing a bomb,  even if the Norwegian heavy water had been produced and shipped at the maximum rate. However, the unsuccessful Operation Freshman and the efforts of the saboteurs in Swallow, Grouse and Gunnerside made the secret war on heavy-water production internationally known.
Drummond, recounts two dramatic raids: on the Norsk Hydro heavy-water factory at Vemork and another the railway ferry Hydro. Marks SOE's cryptographer knew the Norwegian team, trained them in cryptography so they could communicate with SOE in England, and followed their progress after they were dropped in Norway.
The Heroes of Telemark , a British film based on Operation Gunnerside, features one of the original participants in the raid as the Nazi pursuer of the escapees. The Norwegian—Danish—British co-production was initially broadcast on 4 January Swedish power metal band Sabaton made a song about the event titled "Saboteurs" in their album " Coat of Arms ".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Battle during WWII. Scandinavia in WWII. Norway and World War II. See also: German nuclear weapons program. Heavy water and the wartime race for nuclear energy. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing. Retrieved 12 July Fermi, E. Amaldi, O. D'Agostino, F. Rasetti, and E. Lise Meitner — : Protactinium, Fission, and Meitnerium.
Retrieved on 8 June Sign In. Edit Waterworld Showing all 81 items. It is rumored that director Kevin Reynolds and Kevin Costner had a huge squabble over the film, resulting in Reynolds walking off the project and left Costner to finish it.
Reynolds was quoted as saying that "Kevin Costner should only star in movies he directs. That way, he can work with his favorite actor and favorite director". ABC later broadcast an extended TV version that restored almost 40 minutes of deleted scenes, which explain more about the world, the people who live there, the Smokers' religious beliefs and their ability to refine crude oil.
The additional scenes also tie up several loose ends in the theatrical release. Being a TV special, this version was also censored for violence and language. A fan-edit of the film, called 'Waterworld: The Ulysses Cut' named after a restored scene at the end , was later made in an attempt to create the most complete version of the movie.
It was compiled from several broadcast versions, containing all of the additional footage from the TV version while restoring the previously censored parts. In an unexpected turn, the original distributor officially sanctioned this fan-edit by releasing it in a box-set with the other two versions.
This Ulysses Cut was remastered in high-definition though, created with original footage rather than lower-quality broadcast material. The 1, tonne floating set used up all the available steel in the Hawaiian Islands.
When more was required, it had to be flown in from California. Crew members were forced to live in uninsulated condominiums that were subject to temperature swings of up to degrees F. This inequity of accommodations contributed to on-set hostility and low morale. Prior to Titanic , this was the most expensive movie ever produced. For the Japanese premiere, Kevin Costner had his private plane flown to Tokyo. He failed to get permission to store his plane at the airport for the duration of his trip.
He asked the Navy if he could use their airport at Atsugi. They agreed, but only if Costner showed the movie there, and made a personal appearance.
After Kevin Costner showed interest in the film, he insisted that his friend Kevin Reynolds be given the director's position, and Charles Gordon be the producer. Reynolds initially refused because of major disagreements between him and Costner on the set of Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves Gordon had to bring Reynolds and Costner together and act as an intermediate before the two made amends.
Later, Costner had another falling out with Reynolds over the film's direction. Joss Whedon flew out to the set to do last minute rewrites on the script. He later described it as "seven weeks of hell".
The map tattoo on Enola's back is in Chinese traditional characters or Japanese Kanji. The characters in the middle surrounding the arrow are actual coordinates for longitude and latitude. Neither the 2,, Filming had to stop so people could be ferried to portable toilets on a barge anchored near the shore. Two locations were considered to accommodate construction and filming of the enormous sets: the southern coast of Australia, and Hawaii's Kona coast.
The choice fell on Hawaii, since production was scheduled for a summer, when it is actually winter in Australia. The studio didn't spend any money researching weather patterns off Kona coast. If they had, they would have learned that the area was subject to 45 mph winds, which constantly blew the set out of position and ruined shots. Kevin Costner demanded the VFX crew hide his receding hairline digitally, which was not a cheap feat in Jeanne Tripplehorn refused to strip for this film, even though she had done nude scenes before and would do them after this film.
She insisted on choosing her body double, as she wanted the naked backside shown to resemble her own. She had the three finalists come into her trailer and drop their robes. She described it as such an odd experience that none of them could stop laughing. In between takes of the nude scene, Tripplehorn remained off-camera to offer a robe or towel to the double.
The sunken city visited by the Mariner and guest is actually a digitally edited Denver, Colorado. The "Norwest Building" roughly shaped like a cash register can be seen in one shot. Jeanne Tripplehorn and Tina Majorino nearly drowned on their first day of filming when the trimaran they were on sank, dragging them behind it.
The language Kevin Costner speaks to the lime stealing drifter early in the movie is Hindi. Samuel L. Jackson turned down the role of Deacon in order to be in Die Hard with a Vengeance Ginger Peterson, a Hawaii resident and the film's location manager, said local contractors, from catering to construction, demanded very high fees because they knew they were the only available option. Peterson moved out of Hawaii after filming wrapped.
Though widely called a box office bomb upon its release, even nicknamed "Kevin's Gate" after Heaven's Gate and "Fishtar" after Ishtar the film eventually turned a profit. Filming shut down 3 times due to hurricane alerts. Largely due to the input of several big parties including production company Largo Entertainment, Universal Studios, and star Kevin Costner , the script underwent 36 different drafts, involving six different writers. Original writer Peter Rader had already written seven drafts before he was replaced, and the script was constantly being rewritten during filming.
Kevin Costner was on the set days, working 6 days a week. The foot model of the Exxon Valdez sat abandoned at the Mojave Airport airplane scrapyard until August , when it was partially stripped to be repurposed as set decoration for Wasteland Weekend.
After the Uzan family went bankrupt, the government confiscated and later auctioned the boat. The child's name, Enola, is "alone" spelled backwards. If the icecaps melted, the oceans would only rise a few hundred feet; not enough to flood civilization into a floating oblivion.
This inevitably takes the viewer into the action, along with the involving accompanying narrative of what's happened to the earth. Tina Majorino was nicknamed "Jellyfish Candy" by the crew after she was stung three different times during production. One script later rejected called for a second moon to appear in the sky, intimating that the cataclysm which created Waterworld was gravity-related, rather than warming.
Although the exact year that the film takes place is never mentioned, production designer Dennis Gassner has suggested it's set in Kevin Costner nearly died when he got caught in a squall while tied to the mast of his trimaran. The original screenplay by Peter Rader was pitched as an children's adventure film, when he was looking for a project he could direct himself. One producer told him that if he could come up with a good Mad Max rip-off, they had a South-African investor who would help fund this movie, so Rader conceived of an apocalyptic story set on the sea.
In Rader's screenplay the Mariner was a human and the chief defender of the Atoll, whose embarrassing secret was that he enjoyed painting pictures of seahorses; Helen had two of her own children along with the adopted Enola, and the Deacon was a campy, silly villain who dressed up like King Trident, sat atop a throne on the Exxon Valdez, and punished his subordinates by slapping them around the face with a wet fish.
Also, Enola's tattoo would give instructions on how to find Water's End as Dryland was called in his script by looking for its outline as a shadow on the moon.
Subsequent rewrites by David Twohy and Joss Whedon turned the original script into a much more serious action-adventure film.
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