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Dusk-Dawn Wetland & Wooded Hollow Near Camp G (3) - Various - Star Valley: Spring 2009 Soundscapes (CD, Album) download full album zip cd mp3 vinyl flac

Tecumseh: These lands are ours. No one has a right to remove us. The Master of Life knows no boundaries, nor will his red people acknowledge any.

The Master of Life has appointed this place for us to light our fires, and here we shall remain. So that's what his name meant: Teh-cum-theh. David Edmunds, Historian: Ohio was a very special place for the Shawnees. It was an area where one could come down from Ohio, cross the Ohio River and hunt into the bluegrass region of Kentucky — where at this time there were small herds of buffalo, there were elk, there were deer there.

So it was a very special place, and it was a place which was very dear to Shawnee hearts. Shawnees Dusk-Dawn Wetland & Wooded Hollow Near Camp G (3) - Various - Star Valley: Spring 2009 Soundscapes (CD lived in the Ohio Valley off and on for a great period of time. Colin Calloway, Historian: Tecumseh was born around Much of that territory is Shawnee hunting territory.

David Edmunds, Historian: Tecumseh and his younger brother grew up in the midst of the American Revolution. It was a time when Shawnee warriors went south across the river to strike at the frontier forts in Kentucky, and it was a time when the Shawnee villages north of the Ohio were attacked periodically by expeditions of Kentuckians into the region.

Narrator: Named for the Kispokothe war clan into which he was born — whose spiritual patron was a celestial panther leaping across the heavens — he showed promise from the start — quick to learn, graceful and athletic, and touched with a striking natural charisma. He was very unsuccessful as a little child. As a child of about ten or twelve years old he shoots his own eye out while fooling around with a bow and arrow Narrator: In the end, no Shawnee family would be left untouched by the rising tide of violence in the Ohio River Valley.

Their mother left for Missouri in after horrifying warfare between the Long Knives and the Shawnees. So that by the time Lalawethika was thirteen, roughly half of their immediate family members had either been killed or had voluntarily removed from Ohio. Narrator: For the Shawnees as a whole, the outcome of the American Revolution would prove even more cataclysmic.

All through the war they had fought valiantly on the British side in defense of their homelands, without losing a battle — only to discover — following the British surrender — that their one time allies had ceded all lands west of the Appalachians to the new American republic. The terms of the treaty do not even mention Indian people — a nd, yet, this is a treaty that has huge That is Indian country. And within a few years, Indian people begin to recoil from that, and to recognize the degree to which the United States represents a major threat to their existence.

Indian nations begin to unite in a confederation, to resist that expansion. Narrator: In the alliance of tribes that now rose up to stop the white invasion, the Shawnees would take the lead, and Tecumseh himself first make a name for himself on the field of battle — in what would prove to be the beginning of an epic thirty-year long struggle, that would permanently shape the physical and moral geography of the new nation.

David Edmunds, Historian: The area they called the Old Northwest — the area north of the Ohio River — was sort of up for grabs in the period after the American Revolution. The British still had forts at Detroit, and they still had a lot of influence among the tribes because they were operating out of Canada.

And they feel that if the United States goes under, they want to be able to move back into this region in force. Narrator: For six long years, the Shawnees and their allies kept U.

David Edmunds, Historian: Tecumseh fights in the battle, and eventually has to withdraw, with part of his warriors, towards the British fort. Colin Calloway, Historian: The British slam the gates of the fort in their faces — fearful of a renewed war with the United States To the Indians — to Tecumseh — this is another act of British betrayal.

And it is following this battle that the tribes are forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville — giving up about the southeastern two-thirds of Ohio. Tecumseh refuses to sign the treaty. He even refuses to participate in the proceedings.

Tecumseh is incensed that they are now forced to give up much of his former homeland. But this is the death knell, in many ways, for the tribes in the Old Northwest. Donald L. Fixico, Historian: The natural world that the Shawnees knew The eastern tribes are being pushed farther into their lands.

There are observations of deer being less — bear being less, the receding of wild game. And so Tecumseh knows he has to construct some type of plan. And it has to be a large plan, in order to confront this huge westward expansion that begins to pulsate into different areas — into the Great Lakes area — and into the southeast part of the United States.

But how do you stop this huge westward expansion? Narrator: The Treaty of Greenville marked a crucial turning point in the battle for the eastern half of the continent — opening the Ohio River Valley to a flood of white settlers — hemming the Shawnees and their allies onto dwindling tracts of land too small to sustain the old ways of life.

Even in the newly created Territory of Indiana — into which Tecumseh and his followers now retreated, hoping to find refuge — a systematic policy of land loss and dispossession was soon put into place by American politicians — eager to effect the transfer of land any way they could — and convinced the Indian way of life was dying.

Some tribes are advancing, and on these English seductions will have no effect. But the backward will yield, and be thrown further back into barbarism and misery And it became a way of making native people into debtors of the United States. And they will only be able to pay those back through a cession of lands. There is no place at that time you could really — if you were a Shawnee — have called home. Because it was constantly being taken off you.

Stephen Warren, Historian: So that bynative people find themselves confined to a small corridor of land — really a spit of land — in northwestern Ohio and northeastern Indiana.

And it is not enough to continue a hunting tradition. What was happening to them was a tragedy of epic proportions. Men could no longer hunt; they could no longer operate as life-sustaining killers; they could not feed their families via hunting; they were on a constant war footing. So that there are probably double the number of women as men in any native village inbecause of this war of attrition. And so these are not only broken homes, but broken communities.

David Edmunds, Historian: It is a time in which disease flourishes and spreads across many of the tribes of the Ohio Valley. It is a time when alcoholism begins to spread among the tribe. The very fabric of tribal society — the kinship systems — seem to be under stress. Why has the Master of Life turned his face from us?

What has happened to us? What have we done to cause this? Narrator: By the spring ofthe misery and suffering in northern Indiana had reached the breaking point. Stephen Warren, Historian: I think that Lalawethika fell victim to all of the worst unintended consequences of colonialism: you know he was an alcoholic; and many viewed him as lazy; prone to violence; he abused his wife.

And so every opportunity that Lalawethika had to distinguish himself resulted in failure. And, by most accounts, he could not support his family. So that he was dependent upon Tecumseh, and others like him, to literally feed his family.

He was so caught up in the sadness and the despair of dependency upon the United State in the form of alcohol; and the fur trade; of land loss.

It was so destructive, and such a sad time. Narrator: It would be all the more surprising then in the dark spring of — as the universe continued to come unhinged for the Shawnees — that a message of terrifying beauty and hope would be brought to the beleaguered people — coming in their very darkest hour, and in the end, from the least likely of sources. Stephen Warren, Historian: Inhis family recalls an event in which Lalawethika falls into a fire, he just — he collapses.

But he miraculously comes back to life. He wakes up to report a vision of extraordinary breadth and power. Lalawethika: I died, and was carried in a dream by the Master of Life down into the spirit world To the right lay the road to paradise open only to the virtuous few To the left, I saw an army of forsaken souls stumbling on towards three dark houses — fearful dwellings of punishment and pain I saw unrepentant drunkards forced to swallow molten lead.

And when they drank it their bowels were seized with an exquisite burning. At the last house their torment was inexpressible. I heard them scream, crying pitifully — r oaring like the falls of a great river. Colin Calloway, Historian: When Lalawethika recovers from his vision, he says that he has come with a message.

He is a reformed individual. It gives people who may have lost hope a new hope. It gives them a direction. It gives them an opportunity to remake themselves — to restore themselves — by reviving their Indian culture and identity. John Sugden, Biographer: Well, the impact is he reforms instantly You have to have a personal revolution in your way of life.

Tenskwatawa: My Children! The Great Spirit bids me say to you thus. You must not dress like the Whites You must not get drunk. It displeases the Great Spirit And he formulated a message that appealed to a great many Shawnee, Delaware, Wyandotte, Kickapoo, Pottawatomie — because that was their experience at the time.

You know, this is a world totally out of balance. And so his vision is a vision for all native people, in a broad way. And as a recovered alcoholic, you know, he could speak to people who had not had that conversion experience — who were still caught up in that cycle of despair.

Tenskwatawa: Now My Children, I charge you not to speak of this talk to the whites The world is not as it was at first, but it is broken, and leans down; and those that are on the slope, from the Chippewas, and further, will all die, if the earth should fall; therefore, if they would live, every Indian village must send to me two persons to be instructed, so as to prevent it. John Sugden, Biographer: And very quickly, you see as early as you see a political plan coming into it.

Eager to establish a center for the new movement — and to re-assert the Shawnee claim to homelands already ceded by treaty — they moved their village to a new site in western Ohio — on the American side of the line established by the Treaty of Greenville ten years earlier, in open defiance of the American government — then sent out messengers to villages across the region, often led by Tecumseh himself. Tecumseh: The Shawnees have heretofore been scattered about in parties, which we have found has been attended with bad consequences.

We are now going to collect them all together to one town that one chief may keep them in good order, and prevent sickness, despair and disorder from coming among them.

Narrator: From the start, the new movement sent shock waves surging through Indian country — unsettling native communities already rocked by decades of change — and deeply dividing the Shawnees themselves — along with other worn down tribes, like the Delawares and the Wyandots.

Narrator: In April — eager to win more recruits from among the troubled tribes in Ohio and Indiana — Tenskwatawa issued a direct challenge to any leaders who opposed him — accusing them of witchcraft, and of being in league with the U. Stephen Warren, Historian: He essentially engaged in a series of high-profile confrontations with their leaders to the point where he enters into a Wyandotte village and engages in a ritualized killing of a Wyandotte leader.

He essentially accused him, and others like him, of being a witch — of attempting to undermine them, by acting as a kind of wedge for Americans to enter their communities and harm their people. And his message spreads like wildfire as a result. Narrator: In late April — as a wave of fear and unease rippled through white communities in southern Indiana — the territorial governor, William Henry Harrison, fired off a letter to the Delawares — denouncing the Shawnee Prophet as an impostor — and urging them to put his supposed powers to the test.

Harrison: My children. Who is this pretended prophet who dares to speak in the name of the great Creator? Examine him. If he is really a prophet, ask him to cause the sun to stand still, or the moon to alter its courses, the river to cease to flow or the dead to rise from their graves. If he does these things you may believe that he is sent from God. Otherwise drive him from your town and let peace and harmony prevail amongst you. Tenskwatawa: Did I not speak the truth? See now, the sun is dark!

David Edmunds, Historian: And the eclipse was so complete that the farm animals, for example, went into the sheds; the birds roosted; etcetera. William Henry Harrison could not have done anything that helps the Prophet, and propels the Prophet and Tecumseh to a position of prominence, more than issuing this challenge.

Narrator: As news of the miracle spread, the trickle of pilgrims coming into Greenville swelled to a flood. By July, Ojibwa villages on the shores of Lake Superior stood empty and deserted.

To the south, Potawatomis left corn crops standing in the fields, and came to hear the Shawnee holy man — whose words now, with each passing month, seemed to grow in stridency and power. Have very little to do with the Americans They are unjust; they have taken away your lands which were not made for them.

The Whites I have placed on the other side of the Great Water, to be another people, separate from you Stephen Warren, Historian: And the U. And the fear really proliferates. Because by certainly, I think most Americans just assumed an orderly process of dispossession and conquest, in which Native Americans would gradually recede from the picture, or assimilate into American society. Narrator: Now events began to accelerate. That June — convinced that English agents operating out of Canada were egging the Indians on to war — William Henry Harrison fired off a letter to the Secretary of War.

The new village, called Prophetstown, would soon rise to become one of the greatest centers of Indian resistance on the North American continent.

It would also become a major obstacle to the dreams of statehood nurtured by William Henry Harrison — who in redoubled his efforts to drive the Indians from Indiana — bribing local chiefs into signing away lands over which they had no authority — and pressing one land cession after another through the Territorial Legislature — culminating in the notorious Treaty of Fort Wayne in the autumn of And suddenly there is a need for very urgent political action.

Narrator: For Tecumseh, it was the decisive moment. In the months and years to come — rallying warriors from half a continent to his cause — he would do everything he could to push back and redraw the still fluid boundaries of the new United States — and to create of a permanent Indian homeland in the very heartland of the country — bounded by the Ohio River to the south and east — by the Great Lakes to the north — and by the Mississippi River to the West — a United Indian States of America within the United States.

He understands that for Indian culture to survive and for Indian independence to survive there needs to be a land base, and that land base can only be preserved and protected by a united tribal resistance. This is no longer a fight that can be waged by just some Shawnees — just some Delawares, just some Wyandottes. Tecumseh: They have driven us from the sea to the lakes, and we can go no farther.

They have taken upon themselves to say this tract of land belongs to the Miamis, this to the Delawares and so on Our father tells us that we have no business on the Wabash — that the land belongs to other tribes But the Great Spirit intended it to be the common property of all the tribes, nor can it be sold without the consent of all He just tries to revive the confederacy he had known as a young man.

He even uses the same terminology — the idea that the land is held in common by the Indians. No one tribe can cede it without the permission of the others Now this was a job — [that was] much more difficult than the job of the American founding fathers — who at least had some tradition of common origin and a similar language and similar thought patterns and mind sets.

Those chiefs might have almost no or little authority within their own communities. But this lack of authority in Indian communities both played against him and for him, because And this is really one of his strategies.

Tecumseh: Listen, people. The past speaks for itself. Where the Narragansetts, the Powatans, Pocanokets, and many other once powerful tribes of our race? Look abroad over their once beautiful country and what do you see now? Nothing but the ravages of the pale-face destroyers. So it will be with you Creek, Chickasaws and Choctaws. The annihilation of our race is at hand unless we unite in one common cause against the common foe. When you think about twenty different tribes — many in which the languages are so different and the politics are so different.

By May, nearly a thousand people had streamed into Prophetstown, and all spring and summer the numbers continued to build. Fearing imminent bloodshed, William Henry Harrison called for a contingent of federal troops to reinforce the territorial capital at Vincennes — then sent a messenger to Prophetstown itself — urging the Prophet to come to Vincennes to air grievances about the Treaty of Fort Wayne.

But it was Tecumseh himself who replied — telling the messenger that he personally would come to meet with Harrison — to discuss Indian outrage over the newly ceded lands. And here you have two representatives of entirely different philosophies and points of view And neither individual was afraid of the other. Harrison had no need to be; the resources were all behind him. But Tecumseh — there was no sense that being in a weak position should mitigate, or reduce his point of view or the worthiness of his cause.

Tecumseh: How my Brother can you blame me for placing little confidence in the promises of our fathers the Americans? You have endeavored to make distinctions. You have taken tribes aside. You wish to prevent the Indians from uniting, and from considering their land the common property of the whole. I do not see how we can remain at peace with you if you continue to do so. This land that was sold, and the goods that were given for it, were done only by the few.

If you continue to purchase land from those who have no right to sell it, I do not know what will be the consequence. I now wish you to listen to me, Brother. I tell you so because I am authorized by all the tribes to do so.

I am at the head of them all. I am a Warrior, and all the Warriors will meet together in two or three moons from this. Then I will call for those chiefs that sold you the land and shall know what to do with them. For Brother, we want to save this land; we do not wish you to take it. And if you take it you shall be the cause of trouble between us. Harrison: The United States has not treated the Indians dishonestly nor unjustly. Indians are not one nation, nor do they own the land in common.

Has not the Great Spirit given them separate tongues? Tecumseh: How dare you! Harrison: This council is over. John Sugden, Biographer: He stood up in a very remarkable and frank way and more or less admitted to Harrison that war would come. We have no alternative. This is going to happen if you continue with this policy. But both men gave no ground.

Narrator: For nearly a week the talks continued — Tecumseh insisting the lands be returned; Harrison, insisting they had been fairly acquired, refusing to return them. Tecumseh: As the Great Chief in Washington is to determine the matter, I hope the Great Spirit will put some sense into his head to induce him to direct you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off. He will not be injured by the war. He may still sit in his town, and drink his wine, whilst you and I will have to fight it out.

Harrison: The implicit obedience and respect which the followers of Tecumseh pay to him is really astonishing and more than any other circumstance bespeaks him one of those uncommon geniuses, which spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established order of things. If it were not for the vicinity of the United States, he would perhaps be the founder of an Empire that would rival in glory that of Mexico or Peru.

John Sugden, Biographer: Now, Tecumseh did a remarkable thing. He said a remarkable thing inwhen he confronted Harrison at Vincennes. He stood up, defended Indian land, and said he represented every Indian on the continent. Now, what a preposterous assertion, even for someone whose life had been so far-flung as his. But to make such a claim at that time — it was an absolutely preposterous thing to say.

Yet what he was saying was that he understood that Native American peoples were in a particular historical predicament, and he was articulating that predicament — and he was doing it for all of them. David Edmunds, Historian: Well, I think by Tecumseh can see that war is imminent between the Americans and the British, and I think he hopes to use this war to help defend Native American homelands in the Old Northwest. The problem for Tecumseh is always gonna be one of logistics.

Stephen Warren, Historian: My sense of Tecumseh is that he was keenly aware of moments of opportunity; and moments to strike; moments to act — and was not one of those moments. Narrator: The dog days of summer were just reaching their peak when Tecumseh embarked on one last grueling tour — heading South this time, to what the Shawnees called the Mid-Day — determined to bring the Chickasawas, Choctaws and Creeks of Mississippi and Alabama into the confederacy, and to shore up British support for the movement — as Britain itself edged closer and closer to a new war with the United States.

Before leaving Prophetstown, Tecumseh urged his younger brother to do everything he could to keep from being drawn into a fight with Harrison prematurely — then made one last stop at Vincennes to see Harrison himself before continuing south — hoping to convince him not initiate hostilities.

Stephen Warren, Historian: Well, I think it was crucial to hold off for several reasons. The first is that Tecumseh was the only person equipped to lead; the second being that British support was crucial — and, whatever they did, it had to be coordinated with the British — and third, I think Tecumseh was really confident that his Southeastern tour would result in a great many adherents. Harrison: August 6 th The day before he set out, he paid me a visit, and labored hard to convince me that he had no other intention by his journey to the south than to prevail on all the tribes to unite in the bonds of peace.

August 7 th. He is now upon the last round to put a finishing stroke to his work. I hope, however, before his return that that part of the fabric which he had considered complete will be demolished, and even its foundations rooted up. Colin Calloway, Historian: As Tenskwatawa watches the American army advance, he is faced with the question of what to do. Do you sit and wait, to see if the American intentions are peaceful, or should you strike against it?

When Tenskwatawa hears of the American army advancing, he interprets this as an act of aggression. One mile to the east lay Prophetstown, stretching south along the Wabash from the mouth of the Tippecanoe.

Stephen Warren, Historian: Tippecanoe. He arrives with more than a thousand men. And Harrison and Tenskwatawa agree to meet the next day, to discuss how they might reach some kind of compromise. You know, we have to fight, we have to surprise them. You know, he caves to pressure.

Narrator: Sometime in the night, a long column of warriors began to file silently out of the village — heading in a long arc for the northwest corner of the American encampment. Fixico, Historian: It was a very wet morning.

Sentries are posted and everything. And possibly, Winnebago warriors, but certainly warriors tried to penetrate the camp, crawling into the camp. And they even make it past the sentries.

Narrator: Around four in the morning, a picket stationed a few yards out beyond the left flank of the camp thought he saw something moving in the trees. Whipping his musket to his shoulder, he fired blindly into the gloom — mortally wounding a Kickapoo warrior as he attempted to steal into the camp.

Harrison himself was in his tent, when the first shot rang out — followed by a series bloodcurdling war cries — and a tremendous crash of muskets — a s the war party rushed in. The Battle of Tippecanoe had begun. John Sugden, Biographer: It was a classic Indian attack. And it was carried through at Tippecanoe with great determination — considering how few warriors there were. The Indians were a very mobile force. They didn't have to wait for orders from chiefs — they fought very much individually.

So if they perceived a force getting out of its depth — moving forward and getting split up from the main force — they could easily rally round and start surrounding it, and cutting it to pieces. I mean, if there had been more Indians on the ground, the Indians might have been capable of inflicting great damage. For a moment, it looks as if the Indians have infiltrated the lines; there's confusion. But as the light increases, it becomes clear to the Americans that the Indians lack the numbers, and that they lack the ammunition to carry this assault home.

And, eventually, the Indians are driven from the field. In reality, the Americans suffered probably more casualties than the Indians. The American force was superior; the American force was better armed; the American force had more ammunition.

But I do think that it represents a blow to the confederacy. Fixico, Historian: Following the defeat at Prophetstown one would think that all of this was over. And it was not — it was just the beginning in fact. It was an impossible task of the largest scale for Tecumseh to rebuild his army — and yet he did it — making twice the effort, twice the stamina. David Edmunds, Historian: Tecumseh, we know, is very angry with his brother after this battle.

And I think the Prophet spends the rest of his life trying to get back into a position of prominence. Fixico, Historian: So Tecumseh has a choice. Do you discard the Prophet? Or do you reunite [with] him in this effort? And he realizes that he has to embrace him again. And he forgives his brother. And this time — make no [mistaken] doubt about it — Tecumseh is going to be there.

Narrator: Though Harrison had destroyed the Indians food supplies and scattered the Indian warriors, he had not destroyed the confederacy itself, and he had not destroyed Tecumseh — and in the end, only succeeded in emboldening the great Shawnee warrior — who, on returning to the Wabash in Januaryimmediately set out to reassemble the scattered alliance — convinced — despite all appearances to the contrary — that the moment of opportunity for the Indian confederacy was rapidly approaching.

Stephen Warren, Historian: I think, in a way, Harrison creates a huge problem for all Americans living in the Northwest Territories — because he disperses those who are antagonistic to the United States everywhere across the Midwest. They have not given up. Narrator: All through the winter and spring of — as long festering tensions between the United States and Great Britain spiraled upward — Tecumseh labored tirelessly to rebuild the confederacy and to shore up British support before a renewed offensive could be launched against Prophetstown.

By May, more than eight hundred warriors had streamed back into the village — while across the Northwest more than four thousand warriors were on the move — the largest Indian confederacy ever mustered on the North American continent. By the third week of June, Tecumseh himself was on his way north towards a British fort on the Canadian side of the Detroit River — hoping to secure supplies and ammunition — when a messenger arrived bearing news he had long been waiting for.

Three days earlier, on June 18 ththe United States had officially declared war on Britain — over the fate of the long-contested Northwestern frontier. The War of had begun — bringing with it the last best hope of a permanent Indian homeland east of the Mississippi.

John Sugden, Biographer: And of course, the British were at a crisis point themselves; they needed American Indian allies. They were fighting a war in which the odds were against them.

They wanted to defend the Canadian line, and of course they needed manpower — only the Indians could fill that void for them. So it was an inevitable alliance at that point. Tecumseh needed them, and they needed him. And he sold that goal to the British. Narrator: Arriving at the undermanned British outpost of Ft.

Malden in the waning days of June — where most were convinced that Canada would fall before the approaching American army — Tecumseh changed the military equation on the ground in less than three weeks — rallying wavering Indian allies to the cause and bolstering British resolve — and astonishing the British commander in charge, General Isaac Brock — with his extraordinary military skills, and sheer force of personality.

He spoke to Tecumseh for a very short time, a mere few weeks. In little more than three weeks, the small but highly mobile force under his command completely unnerved the American army led by William Hull — forcing him to retreat back across the Detroit River to the American side — and effectively bringing the invasion of Canada to an end.

On August 4 that the Battle of Brownstown south of Detroit — with only twenty-four warriors at his command — Tecumseh attacked and routed an American force six times as large — killing nineteen, wounding twelve, while himself losing only a single warrior.

Tecumseh and Brock together mastermind the capture of Detroit. Narrator: On August 16 that the Battle of Detroit, Tecumseh convinced the American defenders inside the fort that they were facing an army many times greater than their own — parading his small host of warriors again and again through a clearing in the forest. Before the British and Indian attack had even begun, a white flag appeared above the ramparts of the fort, and the American army marched out and surrendered their weapons.

It was one of the most humiliating defeats ever suffered by an American army. David Edmunds, Historian: Fort Detroit falls. Fort Michillimackinaw falls. Tecumseh and Brock, who were very close, are able to take Fort Detroit. Colin Calloway, Historian: And it seems as if the vision of an independent Indian confederacy — an independent Indian state, if you like, supported by British allies, but independent of the United States — is on the brink of becoming a reality.

David Edmunds, Historian: And then — unfortunately for Tecumseh — and unfortunately for tribal people — General Isaac Brock is killed fighting the Americans over by Niagara. And the new British commander is named Proctor. Tecumseh has to continually goad Proctor to march against the Americans.

They do invade Ohio twice, attempting to take Fort Meigs — which was an American fort near modern Toledo — and are unsuccessful. And Tecumseh makes them stand and fight. The outcome of the battle seems really to have been a foregone conclusion. By the time the British general [Proctor] actually stops to turn to fight, he has lost the confidence not only of his Indian allies, but of his own men. When the fighting breaks out, the British resistance is minimal. What resistance is mounted is mounted by Tecumseh and the Indian warriors.

You have somewhere to go. But we are standing here, and we are fighting for our homeland. And if you want to run, you run. But leave us the guns and ammunition, because we will stand and fight. Tecumseh: Listen! We are much astonished to see you tying up everything and preparing to run the other way. You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands.

It made our hearts glad to hear that was your wish. But now we see you are drawing back like a fat animal, running off with its tail between its legs The Americans have not yet defeated us by land.

We, therefore, wish to remain here, and fight our enemy should they make their appearance. If you have an idea of going away, give us the arms and ammunition and you may go and welcome for it. Our lives are in the hands of the Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands, and if it is his will, we wish to leave our bones upon them.

John Sugden, Biographer: And then, finally, at the end, you often tell great leaders in the way they react in adversity, rather than victory. He knew that the British had given way before they engaged themselves. He has committed himself to this act. He dies in the final battle here for the control of the Great Lakes. And he dies surrounded by his comrades, and his brother. He dies killed by the Americans. Colin Calloway, Historian: And with Tecumseh dies, of course, the person who has held together the Indian confederacy — the person who has represented the best hope for Indian independence in North America The death of Tecumseh puts, in a sense, finality on the American conquest of that area — that what we know now as an American heartland — is gonna be American — there will be no place in there for Indian people.

Stephen Warren, Historian: I think Tecumseh is, in a sense, saved by his death. John Album), Biographer: One of the things Tecumseh does is he never lets you down. He was there, articulating his position — uncompromisingly pro-Native American position — he never signs the treaties. He never reneges on those basic as principles of the sacrosanct aboriginal holding of this territory. He bows out at the peak of this great movement he is leading. Colin Calloway, Historian: I think one of the things that is so important about Tecumseh is that he is person who by his vision and by his personality and the way he conducts himself gives us glimpses of humanity at its best.

That in the most difficult of situations — in the most hopeless of situations, perhaps — people can have the courage to stand up and fight for what they believe in. Courage in the face of adversity; Tecumseh personifies it.

And his vision that he had — you know, the way he looked into the future and tried to stop progress for the red people. But I think, to a degree, he still has to be recognized as a hero, for what he attempted to do. If he had, you know, a little more help, maybe he would of got a little farther down the line. If the British would have backed him up, like they were supposed to have, you know, maybe the United States is only half as big as it is today.

Few others invested more in the professed protections of the American legal system. Few set more stock in the promises of the American government and its constitution. Bythe Ridge had already struck a series of hard bargains with the United States. In return for the safety and security of the Cherokee people — and the right to remain on the land of their forefathers — the Ridge had taken pains to shed the life he had been raised to.

Theresa Andersson and John Boutte played our wedding ceremony. My Name is John Michael. Anders [Osborne]. Big Sam. Trombone Shorty. Mia Borders. Rotary Downs. Kristin Diable. Newspaper, sports teams in league of their own The New Orleans Advocate, which formally relaunched last month after the Baton Rouge Advocate began publishing locally 11 months ago, is now the official newspaper of the New Orleans Saints and New Orleans Pelicans, Advocate owner John Georges announced at a reception at the Superdome last week.

Georges said the New Orleans paper, which began as a bureau of fewer than 12 under its previous owners, the Manship family of Baton Rouge, now has a staff of By comparison, The TimesPicayune has upwards of employ. Asked if he saw any conflict of interest in this mutual self-promotion, Georges shook his head no. Guidry slow to draw challengers District A is historically host to one of the more volatile seats on the New Orleans City Council — the last four elections have yielded four different winners — but the field of potential challengers to incumbent Councilwoman Susan Guidry is largely quiet as she completes her first term.

A Guidry campaign internal poll conducted in June may explain why. Twothirds of likely voters in the district said they have a favorable opinion of Guidry — a tall barrier for any potential challenger to overcome. The automated phone survey of likely voters was conducted on behalf of the Win Partners consulting firm for the Guidry campaign.

Internal polls should always be taken with a healthy grain of salt; still, the results of the Guidry poll would be good news for any campaign and difficult for any potential challenger to ignore.

Her strongest constituencies are Democrats and white voters, but more than half of Republicans, independents and black voters all had favorable opinions of her as well. Former District A Councilman Scott Shea said the seat represents the best opportunity for Republicans to get on the council. More activity has come from within the Democratic Party.

Juvenile Court case filings have steadily decreased since the mids from 8, a year to less than 2, in Civil District Court had nearly 30, filings at its peak in the late s but has decreased to fewer than 15, filings in At Criminal District Court, filings plummeted to less than 5, in There were more than 10, filings in — but many misdemeanor cases formerly filed at Criminal Court are now prosecuted in Municipal Court.

Despite the increased workload in the form of additional misdemeanor cases, Municipal Court filings steadily dropped from nearly 90, in to less than 40, in Traffic court filings dropped by half sincewhen they hit a year peak of nearlycases, according to BGR. The page report recommends eliminating five of six judges in Juvenile Court, three of four judges in Traffic Court, and essentially halving the rest: losing six judges in Criminal District Court and seven judges in Dusk-Dawn Wetland & Wooded Hollow Near Camp G (3) - Various - Star Valley: Spring 2009 Soundscapes (CD Court.

The report did not suggest eliminating any of the four Municipal Court judgeships. The BGR study drew a measured response from the judiciary. Chief Justice Bernette Johnson issued a statement taking note of the study and adding that the court is waiting for the final report of a legislatively created panel that is looking at the total number of judges statewide, not just in New Orleans, and at all levels of the judiciary — from district courts to justices of the peace to appellate courts.

Ed Murray, D-New Orleans. AIDS conference in N. Visit www. Cotton bows out; Honore steps in Gambit second line correspondent Deborah Cotton, who was scheduled to deliver the keynote address at the eighth annual Rising Tide conference of bloggers and new media this weekend, has pulled out due to ongoing health concerns.

Rising Tide 8 will be held Sept. For tickets and more information, visit www. For ticket information: Ticketmaster. Must be 21 or older to enter casino and to gamble.

A taxing conundrum ame-sex marriage proponents received one of their biggest victories in late August when the Internal Revenue Service IRS announced that same-sex married couples can, as of Sept. For years now, a couple from Louisiana could travel to a state where same-sex marriages are performed and come home legally married, but there were few tangible benefits to getting hitched — just emotional ones.

The IRS ruling which came in the wake of the courts striking down the federal Defense of Marriage Act means same-sex couples can enjoy the same federal tax benefits as other married couples.

Those benefits are substantial. Treasury Secretary Jacob J. What it means at the state level is murkier, and seems poised to leave Louisiana and some other states open to legal challenges as the ramifications of the new IRS rule become clear.

Same-sex marriage has never been legal in Louisiana. Moreover, inLouisianans preemptively amended the state constitution to outlaw not only samesex marriages, but also civil unions. Instead, they will have to prepare three sets of federal returns — one federal joint return and two sets of never-to-be-filed individual federal returns, which will be used to calculate their separate state returns.

As of last week, Gov. If the state Department Dusk-Dawn Wetland & Wooded Hollow Near Camp G (3) - Various - Star Valley: Spring 2009 Soundscapes (CD Revenue insists on same-sex couples filling out two extra tax forms before they. The law — and public acceptance — has moved extremely rapidly on this issue. InMassachusetts was the first state to allow same-sex marriage. Today, 13 states and the District of Columbia perform them. A May Gallup poll showed 53 percent of Americans now support legalizing same-sex marriage, up from 27 percent in Things are more complicated in Louisiana, where a recent poll showed a majority of Louisiana Democrats opposes same-sex marriage.

A simpler, fairer tax system that results in more governmental red tape? Only in Louisiana. The mayor has said he supports civil unions for same-sex couples.

The irony here is that the campaign runs in the 13 states that do allow same-sex marriage. Yelp is a registered trademark of Yelp, Inc. It will be no coincidence if the dean, whose university is under. The political pressure in response to the suit has been relentless and, until recently, one-sided. Meanwhile, Graves continues to mince no words in parroting the Jindal Administration line.

Must be 21 or older to enter casino or gamble. Now, finally, some are starting to push back. The lawsuit, filed in late July, seeks to make 97 oil, gas and pipeline companies pay their share — and only their share — of the costs of restoring lost wetlands in southeast Louisiana and protecting metro New Orleans from the increased threat of flooding. The oil industry admits this much; it just wants taxpayers to foot the bill.

Bobby Jindal — would pull out all the stops to quash the litigation as quickly as possible and by any means necessary. The terms of both men have expired, but they can be reappointed. Kathleen Blanco, who supported levee board reforms in the wake of Hurricane Katrina; and Ruthie Frierson, founder of Citizens for 1 Greater New Orleans, which initiated the grassroots push for levee board reform after the storm.

She also launched an iPhone and Android app offering exclusive downloads and videos and live chats with fans. Members Sam McCabe guitar, vocalsCollin McCabe bass, guitar and Jared Marcell drums combine wailing, urgent lyrics above fuzzy, grungy guitars and a pulsing backbeat in songs infused with blues, punk and garage rock. The band has built a following with frenetic, yet artful, live shows during tours across the Deep South. Bantam Foxes are no slouches in the studio, either.

Despite its referential attitude toward musicians and their lasting impact to the greater cultural community, New Orleans has a punk rock scene that knows bands are, after all, ephemeral. Nothing lasts forever. Come up with an idea, make something, repeat. Members of startand-stop outfits Sparrowhawk, Necro Hippies and Small Bones formed Vibe Ruiner, a decidedly darker, dagger-twisting take on tension-building hardcore punk.

The band released a six-song cassette in time for its summer-long East Coast tour. Continuing the grand tradition of sorcery started nearly 30 years ago and thousands of miles from Louisiana, Barghest thrives in the devastatingly ashen sound of its Scandinavian predecessors.

Black metal has recently been welcomed by the so-called mainstream, but bands like Barghest can retreat comfortably into the swamp and conjure demons uninterrupted. Inthe band released its untitled full-length debut on Wisconsin-based label Gilead Media, home to fellow Louisiana doombringers Thou.

Carson round up country barnburners, torch songs and bloodlust confessionals — a well-crafted collection expected from songwriters gunning for the Nashville crown. But the sibling bandmates and founders of bayou-damp label and studio Bear America hail from southwest Louisiana and are steadily building a Gulf Coast hub for swampy Americana, adding artists like Monroe songwriter Woody Ledbetter and Little Rock, Ark. The Kid Carsons return from a late-summer tour with a Sept. Does anyone know how to play an E chord?

Invariably, he finds one, brings him to the stage and hands over his instrument — to an unwitting pledge about to be hazed. There were sort of seven people in the band at one time. Listen to it and let me know what you think. He knocked it out of the park, man. In this spirit, a phone interview with Andrews at a hotel in Santa Monica, Calif. Even given his new globetrotting status, Andrew is a homeboy at heart and relates his music to his musical family and hometown.

John, Allen Toussaint, Rebirth. I had the chance to work with DJ Mannie Fresh. I know how important they are. With Invent the Future, his fourth studio effort, Truth wields his politics like a sharp-edged sword. It ushered in dozens of up-and-coming and first-timer MCs as a place to discover and hone new voices.

Truth plans to bring it back as an annual festival. Every Tuesday is film industry night, when stunt performers, production assistants and others in the film industry receive dinner specials. The bar also is an event space, hosting private events, debutante parties and sorority and fraternity events. Saturday, Sept. There will be food, drinks and music.

There will be free dog washing, Album), refreshments, samples, discounts. Charles Ave. Tuesday, Sept. No appointments are necessary. Proceeds benefit the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra. The neighborhood watering hole has served locals sinceincluding a steady stream of Tulane students and lawyers. Two of its regulars, both in their 80s, have patronized Rendon Inn for 50 years. The menu reflects their ties to southern Louisiana, with dishes like roast beef po-boys, boiled seafood on Fridays and free food during New Orleans Saints games.

There also are bar food staples like quesadillas and burgers. Chehardy Sherman 3 One Galleria Boulevard, Suite 3 Metairie, Louisiana phone fax 3 toll free 1 Race application forms are available online at isl-edu. Email saferoutes5kwalkrun isl-edu. Looking for some French Quarter eating and drinking advice from a local? Just as he would behind the bar, Ktiri writes down his picks on a napkin, then photographs it and uploads it to his blog.

Ktiri also takes requests, so if you have any questions about going out in the Vieux Carre, drop him a note on the blog. A 7th Ward resident sells hucklebucks and snacks from a doorstep on Allen Street. I wondered if my search would be fruitless. I saw a man who seemed to be my age and asked him if there were any hucklebuck ladies in the 7th Ward. He confirmed their absence. Perhaps hucklebuck ladies were casualties of Hurricane Katrina and the federal floods. A friend of mine told me his mom sold hucklebucks around St.

Augustine High School every afternoon from 2 p. I wondered if I had been given the hucklebuck okie-doke. Drinking Louisiana-brewed beers while cheering on the New Orleans Saints just makes sense. Below are five Louisiana brews to drink on game day, based on drinkability, availability and price. Hopitoulas is also available in ounce cans for tailgating convenience. This pale ale has a great balance between hops and malts and it goes well with those dishes. Abita Amber: This classic Munich-style lager is another beer that goes great with Louisiana cuisine.

With a 4. When Dijon reopens on Sept. Cheramie says a desire for a decidedly more French-focused direction is the reason for the change. He replaces chef Daniel Causgrove. The highlights of my walks were always stopping somewhere for hucklebucks. Some people call them frozen cups or huck-a-bucks, and in other Southern cities they are called cool cups, cold cups and icebergs, but hucklebucks are solid sno-balls sold in Dixie cups. To make them, you freeze a mixture of sno-ball syrup and water.

Of course, there are variations. Riding Ms. Other kids talked about a woman who wrapped quarters in tinfoil and put them at the bottom of each of hers. The one I remember most was Ms.

Like most hucklebuck ladies, she was a senior citizen with a house full of china cats, colorful afghans and macrame plant towers. Blue bubble gum, coconut, nectar, spearmint, pineapple and strawberry were my favorite flavors.

She often had layered hucklebucks like red, white and blue which were strawberry, coconut and bubble gum or red and yellow which were strawberry and pineapple. I asked them if they knew a hucklebuck lady. I thanked them and dashed to my car. I made a quick turn down Allen Street and saw what I thought only existed in the recesses of my mind: the definitive 7th Ward hucklebuck lady. Once I got my hucklebuck, I firmly but slowly rolled it between my hands to loosen it from the plastic cup so I could flip it over and eat it the best way.

I popped-and-flipped it perfectly, as expertly as I did when I was a girl. Dijon has changed chefs a couple of times since it opened in February Causgrove arrived after the restaurant separated with its first chef, Christopher Cody. The Foundation for Entertainment, Development and Education www. The event features food from local restaurants, music by Alexis and the Samurai, tastings of more than wines and spirits and a raffle with a grand prize of bottle collection of wine.

Call Jon Broder for tickets and information. Scott Wood, a beer industry veteran from San Diego and a stay-athome dad to monthold son Jules, expects to open Courtyard Brewery courtyardbrew by springwith the help of wife Lindsay Hellwig.

Wood: Just do it. Can you boil water and cool it? Can you clean up after yourself? Can you wait a week or a couple weeks?

OK, then brew beer. How can homebrewers get people who are loyal to Budweiser, Miller and Coors interested in craft beer? Lambics, fruit beers and wits made with aged hops are easy to try. W: Zwanze Day is coming up. People have driven in from Houston to participate. Now, after a recent re-examination and reinterpretation of state laws relating to on-premise consumption at a commercial brewery, NOLA Brewing will be opening its tap room to the public to purchase pints and take home growlers and cans of beer.

Patrons can order a flight of beers or enjoy a full pint. Fruit for this wine was sourced from Enver Salman Vineyards.

Following vinification, the wine was aged in percent new French oak, adding a whiff of vanilla. The wine offers aromas of concentrated dark fruit, jammy blackberry and mocha with hints of cassis, black plum, anise, some earthiness and firm tannins. Decant an hour before serving for best flavor. Drink it with grilled meats, roast duck, wild game, burgers and pasta Bolognese.

Drink it at: Pelican Club, Ste. Marie, Mr. Open every day except Tuesday, the tap room will open at 2 p. The brewery plans to have a rotation of visiting food trucks and occasional live music. Wednesday Lafayette Square, block of St. Honey Island Swamp Band kicks off the Wednesday concert series, and there are food and art booths at Lafayette Square. The series continues through Oct. Where local ingredients and cooking styles meet classic French cuisine. Dinner, drinks, music — done.

That is, unless you choose to stay the night. Enjoy Treme every Sunday this summer! Two episodes every Sunday. Self-parking also available at the Royal Sonesta. Louis-style pork ribs, pulled pork, brisket, smoked sausage and grilled chicken. Reservations accepted. Lunch daily, dinner Mon. Credit cards. Out 2 Eat is an index of Gambit contract advertisers. Unless noted, addresses are for New Orleans.

To update information in the Out 2 Eat listings, email willc gambitweekly. Deadline is 10 a. No reservations. Lunch and dinner daily. Breakfast, lunch and dinner daily, late-night Thu. Jefferson Davis Pwky. Bayou burger or Disco fries topped with cheese and debris gravy. Lunch and dinner, late-night Fri.

Delivery available. Lunch, dinner and late-night daily. Muffulettas are filled with ham, Genoa salami, provolone cheese and house-made olive salad and served toasted. Lunch, dinner and latenight daily. Carrollton Ave. Dinner and late night daily. Lunch and dinner Mon. Cash only. The pulled pork platter features pork slow cooked over hickory and white oak and it comes with two sides.

The Caprese panino combines fresh mozzarella, pesto, tomatoes and balsamic vinaigrette. Breakfast, lunch and dinner daily. Pain au chocolat is a croissant filled with dark chocolate. Breakfast Thu. Breakfast and lunch Fri. Reservations accepted for large parties.

Lunch Tue. Grand Marnier shrimp are lightly battered and served with Grand Marnier sauce, broccoli and pecans. Lunch and dinner Tue. Reservations recommended. Lunch Wed. Louis St. Signature dishes include oysters Rockefeller, crawfish Cardinal and baked Alaska. Lunch and dinner Mon-Sat. Louisiana crab cakes are popular. Breakfast and lunch Thu. Breakfast daily, dinner Tue. Treasure Island Buffet — Williams Blvd.

Lunch Mon. Breakfast and lunch daily, dinner Mon. Ann St. Green beans come with rice and gravy. Jims — Royal St. Breakfast Sat. Lunch Sun. The deli serves po-boys, salads and hot entrees such as stuffed peppers, beef stroganoff and vegetable lasagna.

Vegan pizzas also are available. Breakfast and lunch daily, early dinner Mon. Shrimp Italiano features shrimp tossed with cream sauce and pasta. Lunch Fri. Judge Perez, Chalmette, ; Lapalco Blvd. Reservations accepted for five or more.

Vegetarian options are available. Lunch and dinner. Yebeb alicha is lamb in mild garlicginger curry sauce. Shrimp Dukie features Louisiana shrimp and a duck breast marinated in Cajun spices served with tasso-mushroom sauce. Dinner daily. Osso buco is a braised veal shank served with garlic, thyme and white wine demi-glace, herb-roasted Parmesan potatoes and grilled asparagus.

Dinner daily, lunch Wed. Popular dishes include shrimp Mosca, chicken a la grande and baked oysters Mosca, made with breadcrumps and Italian seasonings. Dinner Tue. At lunch, try handmade meatballs, lasagna and other Italian specialties, panini, wraps, soups and salads.

Breakfast and lunch Mon. Chastant Street: lunch Tue. Charles Avenue: lunch Tue. Lite dinner daily. Tomato Buffala features baked tomatoes and mozzarella topped with basil. Grilled filet mignon is topped with mushroom sauce and served with two sides.

Todo Santos fish tacos feature grilled or fried mahi mahi in corn or flour tortillas topped with shredded cabbage and shrimp sauce.

Lunch and dinner daily, late night Thu. Dinner daily, late-night Fri. The menu offers such Creole favorites as gumbo and crab cakes and there are cheese plates as well. Breakfast daily, lunch Fri. Oven Maple St. Reservasashimi and Japanese cuisine tions accepted. Breakfast, as well as dishes with modern lunch and dinner daily. Credit and local twists. Reservations cards. Pork loin roulade is vorite, with more than 25 rolls.

Lunch spinach, stone-ground grits and dinner Mon. Credit and balsamic-infused pork jus. Mikimoto — S. Carrollton Credit cards. The Metairie, ; South Carrollton roll includes www. Reservations accepted for offers dishes like duck and wild mushroom spring rolls large parties. Reservations acSteakhouse — St. Charles cepted. Credit Ave. A Credit cards. Reservawide selection of sushi, sashimi tions accepted. Lunch and and rolls or spicy gyoza soup, dinner daily. Reservations accepted City Park Ave.

Tuna facebook. Dishes Lunch Tue. Dinner Bienville St. Credit www. Span- Reservations recommended. Credit refried black beans, saffron rice cards. ReservaTomas Bistro — Tchoupitions accepted. Lunch and toulas St. The duck cassoulet ; www. Cajun and Creole dishes and ice cream daquiris. The New Orleans sampler rounds up jambalaya, red beans and rice and gumbo. Lunch and early dinner daily. The buffet-style gospel brunch features local and regional groups.

Rampart St. Louisiana black drum is topped with jumbo lump crabmeat and served with spinach, black-eyed peas and sherry cream. Claude Ave. Potato and cheese pierogies are served with fried onions and sour cream. Dinner and late-night daily. Get one with a schmear or as a sandwich. Salads also are available. Breakfast and lunch daily. Daily specials include braised lamb shank and chicken fried steak.

The Boudreaux pizza is topped with cochon de. As for Market Street, the coordinator said steps were incorporated to address the concerns of business operators opposing the proposal, including making sure the roadway would not be blocked in front of their establishments.

Based on material presented last month, a minute parking and loading zone turnaround area would be created to benefit retail and service entities. The commissioners did give their OK Thursday for a small vehicular alleyway behind Thirsty Souls Community Brewing to be converted into a permanent pedestrian area as part of the overall changeover.

A Pilot Mountain potter and businesswoman is using her creativity and passion for the arts to bring together an assemblage of talented area artists and craftspersons, developing a market for art lovers of all kinds.

Kathy George honed her skills as a potter while studying under well-known pottery maker and teacher Sylvia Lawson. George is a cosmetologist by trade and has owned and operated of The Head Shoppe Plus in Pilot Mountain for more than 40 years. At her business and in her classes, George had developed a network of friends who appreciate a variety of art. They had often reminisced about the art market which once operated in downtown Pilot Mountain and lamented its closing.

George began to wonder if, with the help of friends, she could revive the art market concept. Sylvia Lawson joined in the idea and the friends began to make plans, welcoming enthusiastic input from other artists. A third local potter and pottery teacher, Joel Jessup, also volunteered his time and skills to the project. The space soon proved ideal for established artists to come in to work and offer classes, while also displaying some pieces.

The growing venture was dubbed the West End Arts Market. According to George, the studio started out as a place for potters to gather, sharing ideas and an appreciation for the creativity being displayed. But soon artists began to talk with their friends and the collection of artists grew and became more diverse.

Classes are now being offered for instruction in various forms of art. An effort has been made that when not having classes, however, studio displays will be limited to established local artists. Gradually, the concept has outgrown the studio and George has now dedicated a significant portion of her salon to the display and potential sale of finished pieces.

A large assortment of pieces in the space made available at the salon will be available during normal salon hours each Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. Artists taking part in the studio include potters George, Lawson and Jessup as well as Shirley Peele inspirational rock paintingGinny Adams pottery and garden-themed skillsTommy Cheek stained glassthe husband and wife team of David pottery and Arlene Johnson paintingEllen Peric soapsDebbie Lyons potteryPamela S.

Other artists are expected to be added as word of the venture spreads. This is my baby. These are artists whose creativity pours out through their work. This provides them with the outlet they need and deserve. It is targeting the Sparger Building — a large baby blue structure on Willow Street amid the sprawling site the city government bought in after years of infant apparel manufacturing there — and other property on Franklin Street nearby which is vacant.

This effort is led by Bryan Grote, a highly regarded local financial expert, who is donating his time to the city as a member of the group Mount Airy Downtown. Grote gave an informational briefing on the RFP plan during the last meeting of the Mount Airy Board of Commissioners on July 16 and is scheduled to deliver a final draft during its next one Thursday at 2 p. It lists existing opportunities as the historic rehabilitation of the Sparger Building and surrounding property, with a hotel preferred on the site, and new construction on the Franklin Street frontage property with a residential use preferred.

Tom Koch, one of three freshmen on the five-member group, said his preference is for a hotel, but city officials should be open to other uses for that structure including residential.

Steve Yokeley, one of the two veteran council members, agreed. However, the other long-serving commissioner, Jon Cawley, who has been part of the redevelopment effort since the beginning and a frequent critic of it — often on the losing end of votes on various steps — supports the hotel use. He said this boils down to a policy decision of the board, with the request for proposal process a mechanism to bring that about.

Those plans were abandoned in amid concerns that the Barter addition subjected Mount Airy taxpayers to undue financial risks. Among other requirements for prospective developers, the RFP procedure envisioned by Grote includes demonstrating the financial capacity to make a project a reality and providing a timeline with key milestones through its completion.

A culinary school and other educational uses are being pursued for another structure referred to as the Cube Building. Yet the financial consultant said the present conditions could be a plus in perhaps attracting fewer developers but a better quality of project proposals while weeding out less-serious ones. Surry County Republicans will open their headquarters in Mount Airy Friday with the help of a high-ranking official from Raleigh. The event is scheduled to begin at p.

Friday, with the public invited. He previously served four terms in the N. House of Representatives, including one as speaker pro tempore, the second in command of that body behind the House speaker. Jones said the presence of such a special guest will help get the Mount Airy GOP Headquarters off to a good start in playing a valuable role leading up to the general election in November.

While the facility is geared toward Republican supporters, undecided voters also are welcome to come by and receive information. Along with free signs promoting President Donald Trump and others, Trump-related memorabilia such as hats will be available for sale at the party headquarters.

Main St. That was a campaign visit by Lt. Dan Forest, who is running for governor, to the Snappy Lunch diner downtown. Many Americans of a certain age, like me, have wonderful memories of loading into the family station wagon and heading to the drive-in.

We sat on folding chairs, dropped tail gates, or blankets on the ground and gleefully ate buckets of buttery popcorn as the cartoon hot dogs and dancing cups of soda invited us to the snack counter.

We shivered with delight as Herbie the Love Bug zipped or John Wayne galloped across the towering screens. I can still remember the odd echo and delay of the movie dialogue coming from a dozen speakers all around our car. There was a special thrill knowing we would all be up way past our bedtime — even if we often fell asleep in the back seat with our cousins before the movie ended.

Surry County had several drive-ins through much of the 20th century. Ellis Forest was a partner in the Winston-Salem Drive-in opened in No admission was charged the first night and, even though the weather was horrible, cars were backed up to Main Street waiting to get in. Get your ice-cold Drinks!

At the end of the day he made half a penny for each. The concept of a drive-in movie theater was around in the early s but the films were silent. Richard M. Hollingshead, of Camden, New Jersey, worked out the logistics of projection, sound, and finances in He was granted a patent for his idea in and drive-ins started popping up across the nation. Australia is the only other country where they were common though they have been novelty attractions in other countries.

The two local men opened a second theater on August 11,called the Bright Leaf with a lot large enough to hold cars. Just a few years later the state bought the site to expand Route 52 and the Bright Leaf was moved to the site most local residents remember just north of West Pine Street. He used gimmicks to attract attention such as giving free watermelons to the first 20 cars or having a drawing for a free pony.

Live music was often performed between shows apparently including Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs. Young Davis lived and breathed the theater, apparently, keeping up with the industry and trying to stay ahead of trends. Both theaters operated seven days a week but on holiday weekends, they screened movies from dusk to dawn.

Like many drive-ins, they played second-run movies. But the age of drive-ins was on the decline by then with many bowing to economic pressures caused by suburban development and a desire for the air conditioning of indoor theaters. Mount Airy Drive-in closed in spring of after a violent storm ripped giant holes in the screen and damaged the fence surrounding the drive-in. The Bright Leaf remained in operation until Don Davis died in Former employees continued the business for another five years until the property was sold in A day of reckoning is looming for delinquent water-sewer customers in Mount Airy due to the expiration last Wednesday of an executive mandate prohibiting cutoffs of service.

But the good news is, steps are in place to help those affected, a city official says — including a special relief fund set up through the local Salvation Army, and the availability of a payment plan. Under Executive Order issued by Gov. This was aimed at assisting citizens who might have lost their jobs or were otherwise impacted by the pandemic economically, while also accommodating the need to maintain running water in households to aid handwashing and prevent the coronavirus spread.

Another order was issued by the governor on May 30 extending that moratorium by 60 more days, but the clock has now run out due to the ban on service interruptions ending Wednesday. In mid-July, about water customers in Mount Airy were determined to be on the cutoff list, according to city Finance Officer Pam Stone, whose department handles water-sewer utility billing.

Customers receive one monthly bill for both services. Even with Executive Orderand the follow-up Ordernot being extended past Wednesday, Mount Airy water users with delinquent accounts still have a little more time to get caught up, Stone mentioned.

Stone also mentioned the availability of the city Utility Donation Fund, established during a recession in to assist those in need through donations by other customers. The plight of water users who are behind in payments has been a concern of city officials during recent meetings. Commissioner Jon Cawley said on one occasion that it might be easy for them to start paying water bills again, but questioned their ability to satisfy the past-due sums given the ongoing impacts of COVID on the local economy.

For some people, life just kind of happens. For others, there sure seems to be some divine guidance — and maybe a little grandparently influence — in the direction they go. The couple have served in Mount Airy for a little more than three years, having come to the local Salvation Army post in June Their family has also grown along the way, with 2-year-old Jeffrey and another child on the way, due this autumn.

The two met while in college at Mars Hill University, not far from Asheville, where their desire to serve was quickly evident. Bonner Foundation. Similar to many scholarship programs, it is based on demonstrated merit of the applicants and financial need, but an equally important component is commitment to community service. Bonner scholars are required to complete 10 hours of community service each week while in school. Although she had grown up just outside of Atlanta, Lea had ties to both the Salvation Army and the Asheville area — her grandparents were long-time officers with the Salvation Army, retiring from the mission in Asheville.

The longer they were in that community, the more they became involved with various ministries. Lea, in particular, was drawn more into the work of the Salvation Army. She was excited about the chance, seizing on the offer. Lea, she makes clear, really enjoys working with Christmas programs, and that first work with the Salvation Army was right up her alley, though a little overwhelming at first.

Jeff explained that was no easy feat, given that the Christmas Kettle program there included locations. Along the way, Jeff was working in various positions. Though he was no longer teaching at the time Jeff was still working with kids through the Boys and Girls Club while Lea was moving more toward what she thought would be a career in HR.

By this time, others around them had suggested they consider taking on the role of professional ministry through the Salvation Army.

Lea said she was at an HR conference one day, then was driving home when she felt God reaching down to her, and she can still recall the words that came to her mind, as if planted there. I want you to lead. I want you to be an officer.

As life often is, that day was far too packed with tasks and schedules for her to be able to talk with Jeff about the calling, or even mention it to him in passing. Unbeknownst to her, Jeff had his own interaction with the Almighty that day. He got his answer quickly, knowing almost immediately that God was calling him to full-time ministry as a Salvation Army officer. That was a Wednesday, and the two of them had been apart — separated by more than a hundred miles — all day.

Soon enough, the two had left Asheville and were in Atlanta, taking part in a two-year Salvation Army seminary program, and then they were sent to Mount Airy. The Salvation Army, and its leadership structure, is different from other churches and ministries in many ways, among them being so involved in distributing food, clothing, and other assistance to the needy, in addition to preaching, teaching, and counseling on spiritual matters.

Within the ministry portion of the operation, he said the person with the least tenure has been there 18 years. Another challenge not faced by most other ministers is the possibility of being transferred to another location. While the Brooks have been in Mount Airy for more than three years, they both said the Salvation Army regularly transfers its officers from one location to another as a result of retirements and the occasional person leaving the ministry.

On the third Sunday of April is when it often occurs. Ultimately, though, the couple said they leave it up to the Lord to determine where they will serve. Sarah Ashley Hill, 33, who had an address in Patrick County, Virginia, and also was known to stay with friends in North Carolina, has not been heard from since June 6, Early that morning, Hill used her cell phone to call her older sister, a registered nurse at Hugh Chatham Memorial Hospital in Elkin, saying she was on Blue Hollow Road near Mount Airy and needed a ride.

The sister, April Hill Cain, could not respond right away due to being needed at the hospital, and was unable to reach Sarah Hill after her shift ended — it was if she disappeared off the face of the Earth without a trace.

This has led up to investigators focusing their efforts on a location in the Sheltontown area in recent days. Although the missing woman has been described as someone who liked to party and had many friends, it was unlike Hill to have a prolonged period of no contact with family members, her sister has said.

One apparent breakthrough in the case came in January when it was reported that law enforcement officers from multiple agencies had conducted a day-long search centered on three different sites on King Park Circle.

Meanwhile, the case has remained unsolved since that search — although a new development surfaced in late July. One source familiar with the case reported that the most recent activities involved another digging effort, sparked by a new tip being received by authorities.

He also did not specify if anything had transpired in the days since the July effort which has led to investigators coming closer to solving the case. He also was asked if any persons of interest had been developed during the course of the investigation.

The trip was part of his statewide campaign tour for the autumn, and drew a large crowd of supporters. He is facing incumbent Gov. Roy Cooper in the Nov. No Ferris wheel, cotton candy, games, livestock shows or other attractions of a county fair are in store this year in Mount Airy as part of the seemingly never-ending wild ride powered by COVID The latest cancellation casualty of the coronavirus locally is the Surry County Agricultural Fair, which had been scheduled to mark its 73rd year with an eight-day run at Veterans Memorial Park from Sept.

Whether or not the fair would be held was still a question mark as of Wednesday, but a subsequent governing board discussion led to an official of the event making the grim announcement regarding its fate Thursday. Fair officials had been in a kind of holding pattern while monitoring the status of COVID, which has put the clamps on large public gatherings with the imposition of health restrictions.

This was expected to trigger a domino effect for county fairs held in late summer and fall across the state. Another catalyst for the decision locally, Thorpe said, involved uncertainty surrounding the availability of Powers and Thomas Midway Entertainment, a Wilmington-based company that has provided attractions including rides and games at the Surry fair for the past four years.

Powers and Thomas has not participated in other events it normally does during the summer in states such as Pennsylvania and New York. Above all, the health and safety of the public was the overriding factor in the decision, according to the fair official.

The cancellation of the Surry County Agricultural Fair is the second major blow dealt to Veterans Memorial Park event-wise this year. Detectives attempted to pull over a vehicle during an interdiction stop, which resulted in a pursuit. During that pursuit, the driver of the vehicle, later identified as Blaylock, jumped from it and ran into a wooded area.

It was sitting in the middle of a roadway not far from his home. Those officers were responding to a suspicious-vehicle call, with a search of the vehicle turning up heroin, methamphetamine, clonazepam, two handguns and assorted drug paraphernalia. Blaylock was charged with driving while impaired; felonious possession of heroin with intent to manufacture, sell or deliver; felony possession of methamphetamine with intent to manufacture, sell or deliver; felony maintaining a drug vehicle.

Also, two counts of possession of a Schedule IV controlled substance; two counts of felony possession of a firearm by a convicted felon; two felony counts of possession of a firearm with an altered serial number; and possession of drug paraphernalia.

A man was killed Thursday night when the moped he was driving was struck head-on by another vehicle. According to that report, King had swerved across the yellow line into the oncoming traffic to avoid a truck which had stopped, waiting to turn left onto Bray Ford Road. Reed was pronounced dead at the scene shortly thereafter. It was not clear from the Highway Patrol report if charges had been filed. The case remains under investigation.

It was not immediately clear where the victim, or the other driver, were from. In an unrelated incident, a Tyson Food truck carrying a load of live chickens bound for a processing plant overturned early Thursday morning on NC when several tires of the truck rode off of the highway onto the soft shoulder of the road.

The wreck and subsequent clean-up closed a long section of the highway for most of the day Thursday. The wreck also left a mess, with both dead and live chickens strewn throughout the area around the wreck. Shelton said about mid-day that he anticipated the highway would remain closed at least until 4 p.

Shelton said officials with Tyson were on the scene quickly to assess the damage and begin clean-up, as were officials from the state department of agriculture, there to oversee the operation. There were no additional injuries.

Shelton also said that, contrary to what was feared for a short time on Wednesday, there was no helicopter crash in Surry County. He said his office did receive a report of a possible crash, so he immediately went to the Surry County-Mount Airy airport to set up a command center to coordinate search efforts. He explained that such aircraft are often used for field spraying operations, and they often make quick drops toward land.

The food truck gathering is scheduled Saturday from 11 a. It has been hard-hit by COVID, including the cancellation of one major event normally held there and the possibility of another, which provide proceeds to support its operation. The list also will include trucks offering fish sandwiches, hot dogs, hamburgers, slushies and various other dessert items. In an effort to accommodate those who want to dine on-site along with patrons who prefer to pick up items and leave, picnic tables will be placed on the park grounds.

The Food Truck Rodeo originally was scheduled for Junebut postponed due to pandemic-related restrictions imposed by the Mount Airy Police Department. An annual fiddlers convention staged in June at Veterans Memorial Park was cancelled, with plans for the county fair there in September still uncertain, a fair official said Wednesday. Mount Airy Fire Department members have responded to two blazes on back-to-back nights this week, including one Monday that sent an elderly couple to the hospital and fatally injured their pets.

The fire Monday night occurred at a residence on E. Independence Blvd. The incident on East Independence Boulevard was reported around 9 p. Monday at the residence of Mr. Donald Tate, who have been displaced as a result. Tate, whose condition was unknown, while her husband subsequently was released from Northern Regional.

Donald Tate is now staying at a local hotel through an American Red Cross program that provides temporary lodging to displaced fire victims. One cat survived and fire personnel on the scene Tuesday were awaiting the arrival of a granddaughter of the couple to take charge of that animal and some guns in the house.

Battling a blaze in the summer warmth is much more dangerous for fire personnel than any other weather condition, according to Poindexter, who explained that their gear weighs about 55 pounds and the body is much more susceptible to heat-related illnesses. During such situations, a larger-than-usual amount of manpower is required so firefighters can be rotated in and out from the front line to keep them fresh and lessen the chances of being overcome, he said. The blaze Sunday night at Merita St.

It was reported shortly after 8 p. At meetings in May and June of the Surry County Board of Commissioners, three neighbors off Galax Trail just outside the Mount Airy city limit asked county officials to help them get rid of what they called a nuisance property.

She said it was a quiet residential area before the Ritter family moved in. She and two other women told the board of more than a dozen dogs barking for most of the day, dozens of chickens, ducks and a few goats all being kept on less than one acre of property. They spoke of the noise and smell coming from the lot. Commissioners Johnson and Bill Goins visited the Taylor house and came back sympathetic to the barking they heard while there.

At the most recent board meeting last week, Crystal Ritter appeared during the open forum portion of the meeting to speak on behalf of herself and her daughter Jenna, whom she said was autistic and needed to write her thoughts down. Normally the board chairman asks the speakers to limit their remarks to three minutes.

We did not know this was an issue until we spent our first night in the house and started cleaning it. We found dozens of mouse traps. After doing laundry, we saw them in Album) basement, and we heard them in the attic. She stated that while the neighbors claim that she and her family have brought down the property values, the house was already doing that before they moved in.

The full-sized tennis court mentioned by the neighbors behind the house was in such disrepair that it was listed as having no value on the form. She said unkempt trees have resulted in large branches and even trees themselves falling on buildings and power lines.

The complained we had too many visitors and wanted to know who was visiting. They complained that I always had a light on in the window. The threats resulted in us filing a restraining order against them. Ritter admitted to have different types of animals on the farm such as chickens, ducks and goats. Instead she said people from animal control showed up because of a complaint about overcrowding of dogs on the tennis court when there were only five at the time.

The officer asked where the rest were. We told him that was it. He told us that the lady behind us, Delores, called to complain we had 50 dogs. We never, ever had that many. After that, we started finding Delores a few feet into our property yelling at our dogs and us while filming. After Ritter spoke, the board, as usual, took no action and moved on to the next open forum speaker.

When deputies arrived at the address, the officers found a white male, later identified as Wesley Dale Hall, 27, of that address, with a gunshot wound to his mid to upper torso, according to Capt. Larry Lowe. Daughenbaugh was charged with assault with a deadly weapon with intent to kill, inflicting serious injury. Daughenbaugh is scheduled to appear in court on Aug. According to the Surry County court docket, on Sept. On Sept.

He was given a suspended sentence, probation and community service. In December at 18 years old, he went to prison for the first time after being found guilty of six charges.

The initial charge was felony possession of a weapon of mass destruction in February. He served 10 months in prison, getting out in October He was only out two months before being charged with violating his parole by interfering with his ankle monitor. On Jan. He was taken to court and convicted of the felony parole charge and went back inside for nine more months, getting out in October. That was short-lived, however, as by January he had his court date for the three charges that came the year before when he reportedly tried to flee from an officer.

His parole was scheduled to continue until Dec. A Mount Airy man is dead after an altercation with city police led to his shooting, according to the Mount Airy Police Department. Samuel Solomon Cochran Jr. Upon arrival officers found that Cochran was barricaded inside of the residence. Cochran died at the scene. The statement did not say if he was shot more than once, nor did it include any additional information regarding the potential drug overdose or if anyone else was involved.

This is the story of a love song with Mount Airy ties. Hattie found the pretty young girl shot dead, blood soaking her clothing, her white apron tied to a nearby bush.

Another man soon arrived. He had also been directed by the gentleman in the dapper brown suit and the black derby hat to the scene. Ellen, a cook for a family nearby, was quickly identified and her story was soon pieced together.

The couple had been seen arguing recently. DeGraff told friends he wanted to be done with Ellen. It was assumed that the dapper young man Hattie Pratt spoke with that morning was DeGraff.

He and his family were well known to the sheriff. DeGraff made no attempt to hide where he was for a month after the slaying but he was not arrested. He lived and worked here, following Winston-Salem newspapers where his name appeared on a regular basis.

In Junenearly a year after the murder, he returned to his old stomping grounds and the new sheriff wasted no time in arresting him. People closely followed the hearing and incarceration of the dapper young man whose hair was always meticulously combed. His trial was sensational but brief and the jury took only 20 minutes to return a guilty verdict.

He fought the conviction to the state supreme court but they upheld the ruling and he was condemned to hang on Feb. Ballads are story songs. The ancient musical tradition allowed events in history to be recorded in cultures where few could read or write.

Not all ballads are love-gone-wrong and murder. Railway accidents were major news events, and often subjects for romanticized poems and songs. These songs spanned a wide range of topics, including religion, stills, ghosts, and politics. In the early s and again in the mid- to late s when there was a resurgence of interest in American folklore, people traveled through the North Carolina Appalachians finding and recording the old songs. We are forever grateful to them for collecting these fleeting and beautiful oral histories.

And, perhaps, spare a thought for poor Ellen Smith, forever 19, and forever tied to Surry County by the actions of a feckless and vain young man.

The toll has been tallied from an incident in downtown Mount Airy which caused major damage to utility poles, electrical equipment and parked vehicles after a tractor-trailer struck an overhead power line.

The accident report, by Officer R. It occurred shortly after 2 p. As the rig — with a gross weight of 72, pounds — headed north on City Hall Street, which runs perpendicular to Moore, it struck an overhead utility line that was caught by the top left corner of the front of the trailer.

With the line still snagged on the trailer, the truck continued north, causing the five utility poles connected to the line along the two streets to break, the accident report continues. As a result, both poles and lines toppled onto multiple vehicles. As the poles fell, the transformers on two of them struck the ground and burst, splashing oil on three of the vehicles. VanHoy was referring to a departmental procedure that Police Chief Dale Watson has described as simply determining contributory negligence in traffic accidents unless some aggravating factor such as impaired driving is involved.

The two streets were closed in the aftermath of the incident to allow crews from Duke Energy and Pike Electric to clear the roadways and make repairs, which continued for a lengthy period.

Inthere were calls to the EMS about overdoses. As of the meeting last week, Willis said there had already been calls. This would put the county on pace for in This figure represents only the ones the county knows about through its EMS, Willis added. Speaking to Northern Regional Hospital and Hugh Chatham Memorial Hospital, he said those emergency departments between the two of them are seeing additional overdoses come in through private vehicles.

It has been two years almost to the day since the commissioners tasked him with addressing the opioid crisis, Willis said. It is not yet comprehensive and does not focus our resources and does not seize all the opportunities offered to affect intervention.

In that case, a continuum of care is needed for substance abuse disorder the way the country has responded to COVID prevention, intervention, treatment and recovery. He said he tried to find as many choices and options as he could throughout the country to tackle the issue. However, the options only work when folks stop looking at this as a criminal problem and start addressing substance abuse as a disease. This is a change in thinking for Willis himself.

He served 22 years in the Marines, then went into law enforcement with a Virginia police department, before becoming a special agent for the federal government. Department of Health and Human Services — became active in mid-February. Willis gave thanks to EMS Director John Shelton and his team who have made 33 referrals since the intervention team became active. He has spoken previously about the idea of a drug court; rather than an addict going to prison for drug possession, the person could be evaluated to see if he or she could be eligible for alternative ruling from a judge.

While Willis spoke of not having all the answers and the strategy not being as effective as it could be, the county manager told a different story. This is why the council wants to work with Surry. Knopf said Willis is seeking a grant from the U. Department of Health and Human Services that would go toward planning for a rural communities opioid response program. The best part is there is no matching fund required from the county.

Responding to questions by Commissioner Van Tucker, Knopf said once the planning is done, there is no requirement to apply for an implementation grant, Knopf said. Transitional housing is a big problem, the county manager said.

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