Beginning inTascam introduced the Portastudio line Inside Dead - Todestrieb (Cassette) four- and eight-track cassette recorders for home-studio use. In the simplest configuration, rather than playing a pair of stereo channels of each side of the cassette, the typical Inside Dead - Todestrieb (Cassette) used a four-track tape head assembly to access four tracks on the cassette at once with the tape playing in one direction.
Each track could be recorded to, erased, or played back individually, allowing musicians to overdub themselves and create simple multitrack recordings easily, which could then be mixed down to a finished stereo version on an external machine. Multi-track cassette recorders with built-in mixer and signal routing features ranged from easy-to-use beginner units up to professional-level recording systems. Although professional musicians typically used multitrack cassette machines only as "sketchpads", Bruce Springsteen 's " Nebraska " was recorded entirely on a four-track cassette tape.
Most cassettes were sold blank, and used for recording dubbing the owner's records as backup, to play in the car, or to make mixtape compilationstheir friends' records, or music from the radio. This practice was condemned by the music industry with such alarmist slogans as " Home Taping Is Killing Music ". However, many claimed that the medium was ideal for spreading new music and would increase sales, and strongly defended their right to copy at least their own records onto tape.
Cassettes were also a boon to people wishing to tape concerts unauthorized or authorized for sale or trade, a practice tacitly or overtly encouraged by many bands, such as the Grateful Deadwith a more counterculture bent.
Blank cassettes also were an invaluable tool to spread the music of unsigned acts, especially within tape trading networks. Various legal cases arose surrounding the dubbing of cassettes. Amstradthe House of Lords found in favor of Amstrad that producing equipment that facilitated the dubbing of cassettes, in this case a high-speed twin cassette deck that allowed one cassette to be copied directly onto another, did not constitute copyright infringement by the manufacturer.
As an alternative to home dubbing, in the late s, the Personics company installed booths in record stores across America that allowed customers to make personalized mixtapes from a digitally encoded back-catalogue with customised printed covers.
Educational, religious, corporate, military, and broadcasting institutions benefited from messaging proliferation through accessibly priced duplicators, offered by Telex CommunicationsWollensakSonyand others. The duplicators would operate at double or greater tape speed. Systems were scalable, enabling the user to purchase initially one "master" unit typically with 3 "copy" bays and add "slave" units for expanded duplication abilities.
The Hewlett Packard HP was one of the first desktop computers in the early s to use automatically controlled cassette tapes for storage. It could save and find files by number, using a clear leader to detect the end of tape. These would be replaced by specialized cartridges, such as the 3M DC-series.
Many of the earliest microcomputers implemented the Kansas City standard for digital data storage. Most home computers of the late s and early s could use cassettes for data storage as a cheaper alternative to floppy disksthough users often had to manually stop and start a cassette recorder.
However, IBM cassette tape was seldom used, as by floppy drives had become commonplace in high-end machines. Nintendo's Famicom had an available cassette data recorderused for saving programs created with the hardware's version of BASIC and saving progress in some Famicom games.
It was never released outside Japan, but the North American versions of some of the compatible games can technically be used Inside Dead - Todestrieb (Cassette) it, since many early copies of two of the games Excitebike and Wrecking Crew are actually just the Japanese versions in a different shell, and Nintendo intentionally included compatibility in later prints of those titles and in other games since they were planning on releasing the recorder in the region anyway.
Among home computers that used primarily data cassettes for storage in the late s were Commodore PET early models of which had a cassette drive built-inTRS and Apple IIuntil the introduction of floppy disk drives and hard drives in the early s made cassettes virtually obsolete for day-to-day use in the US. However, they remained in use on some portable systems such as the TRS Model line —often in microcassette form—until the early s. Floppy disk storage had become the standard data storage medium in the United States by the mids; for example, by the majority of software sold by Atari Program Exchange was on floppy.
Cassette remained more popular for 8-bit computers such as the Commodore 64ZX SpectrumMSXand Amstrad CPC in many countries such as the United Kingdom   where 8-bit software was mostly sold on cassette until that market disappeared altogether in the early s.
Reliability of cassettes for data storage is inconsistent, with many users recalling repeated attempts to load video games;  the Commodore Datasette used very reliable, but slow, digital encoding. They found use during the s in data loggers for scientific and industrial equipment. Streamer cassettes look almost exactly the same as a standard cassette, with the exception of having a notch about one quarter-inch wide and deep situated slightly off-center at the top edge of the cassette.
Streamer cassettes also have a re-usable write-protect tab on only one side of the top edge of the cassette, with the other side of the top edge having either only an open rectangular hole, or no hole at all. This is due to the entire one-eighth inch width of the Inside Dead - Todestrieb (Cassette) loaded inside being used by a streamer cassette drive for the writing and reading of data, hence only one side of the cassette being used.
Streamer cassettes can hold anywhere from kilobytes to megabytes of data. Elcaset is a short-lived audio format that was created by Sony in that is about twice the size, using larger tape and a higher recording speed.
Unlike the original cassette, the Elcaset was designed from the outset for sound quality. It was never widely accepted, as the quality of standard cassette decks rapidly approached high fidelity.
Technical development of the cassette effectively ceased when digital recordable media, such as DAT and MiniDiscwere introduced in the late s and early-to-mid s, with Dolby S recorders marking the peak of Compact Cassette technology. Anticipating the switch from analog to digital format, major companies, such as Sony, shifted their focus to new media. It was aimed primarily at the consumer market. A DCC deck could play back both types of cassettes.
Unlike DAT, which was accepted in professional usage because it could record without lossy compression effects, DCC failed in home, mobile and professional environments, and was discontinued in The microcassette largely supplanted the full-sized cassette in situations where voice-level fidelity is all that is required, such as in dictation machines and answering machines.
Microcassettes have in turn given way to digital recorders of various descriptions. Because of consumer demand, the cassette has remained influential on design, more than a decade after its decline as a media mainstay. As the Compact Disc grew in popularity, cassette-shaped audio adapters were developed to provide an economical and clear way to obtain CD functionality in vehicles equipped with cassette decks but no CD player. A portable CD player would have its analog line-out connected to the adapter, which in turn fed the signal to the head of the cassette deck.
These adapters continue to function with MP3 players and smartphones, and generally are more reliable than the FM transmitters that must be used to adapt CD players and digital audio players to car stereo systems.
Digital audio players shaped as cassettes have also become available, which can be inserted into any cassette player and communicate with the head as if they were normal cassettes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Compact Cassette. Magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback. This article is about a tape format commonly used for audio recording introduced by Philips in [ discuss ]. For other audio, video and data tape cassette formats, see Cassette and cartridge tapes.
Further information: Compact Cassette tape types and formulations. See also: Endless tape cartridge. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Cassette deck. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 29 April Philips USA.
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Audio help More spoken articles. Physical audio recording formats. Music box cylinder or disc 9th century Mechanical cuckoo early 17th century Punched card Music roll Phonautogram Tefiphon early s Teficord early s Tefifon Dictabelt Wire recording Magnetic stripe card Magnetic tape data storage formats. Music technology. Mechanical Electrical Electronic and digital. Digital recording Digital signal processing.
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Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Magnetic tape cassette. Typically 30 or 45 minutes of audio per side C60 and C90 formats respectivelyminutes also available . T he epicenter of modern cassette music culture is in a strip mall on South State College Boulevard in Fullerton, California. Between a tattoo parlor and a massage joint, Burger Records runs its label in a cluttered, curtained-off back room where one of the owners sleeps on the couch at night.
Its founders, Sean Bohrman and Lee Rickard, were pals at Anaheim high school and members of a local power-pop band Three Makeout Party, when they decided to start the label in Bohrman quit his day job as art director at a boating magazine and cashed in his K to start the record store.
While National Audio has found a way to turn a profit, purveyors on the artistic grassroots side of the cassette revival are still trying to figure out how to earn a living on mid th -century technology. Anything goes. There are agendas everywhere. Still, there are moments to celebrate, like when Green Day chose Burger to rerelease their smash hit Dookie.
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