Old folios, ledgers and sizeable tomes surrounded this. The Residence Taleon Sheremetev Palace is an old noble mansion built in the eighteenth century. Today it has regained its former splendour.
It is the first, and as yet only, palace in Russia with five-star hotel services that can be rented as a temporary residence. The Mariinsky Theatre, St Petersburg. From the s Akim Volynsky regularly wrote on the ballet, primarily in Birzhevye vedomosti and Zhizn iskusstva.
In the St Petersburg publishing house Hyperion first collected Volynsky's articles together and published them as a single anthology. The ballerina Olga Spesivtseva. From a drawing by Yury Annenkov. Your words reach me like echoes of a distant paradise. Volynsky too carried a torch for her.
He took me off somewhere, lit a fire and when all my powers had at last grown strong he placed me before you. Your fate, your bride, your love! That is the way of it, Ida. We shall be together! The legendary Anna Pavlova had her debut on the stage of the Mariinsky in That was a bitter blow to his pride. Sculpture by Dmitry Ivanov. State Porcelain Factory.
Volynsky devoted rapturous articles to Olga Spesivtseva, declaring that after Anna Pavlova she was capable of becoming St Petersburg's outstanding ballerina. And she considered herself his pupil. I came to see dances in the light of the soul. You translated for me all our ballet terms into the language of will and feelings. My whole soul was illuminated by your teaching about the classical clarity of dance.
For Volynsky Olga's departure in became an absolute disaster. Spesivtseva too. The calls from Italy were particularly persistent in trying to persuade him that in hungry ruined Russia he would perish. For his book on Leonardo Volynsky was elected an honorary citizen of Milan and his name was given to a repository in the Leonardo Library.
That was where he gave his own collection of historical documents used in the monograph. Volynsky turned down the invitations and stayed in the country so as to serve his cause — the salvation of classical ballet.
Akim Volynsky centre with pupils of the School of Russian Ballet. The lectures that Volynsky gave at his school became the core of his Book of Exultation. At the World Literature publishing house Volynsky ran the Italian section of the editorial office.
Additionally he became chairman of the board of the Leningrad Writers' Union. But Akim Lvovich dreamt of creating in the city a higher educational establishment along the lines of the Parisian Academy of Dance. When Volynsky learnt of Gumilev's arrest while attending the funeral of Alexander Blokhe went to the headquarters of the Cheka to ask for the poet's release on his surety but received a categorical refusal.
After he taught at the School of Russian Ballet. Rossi Street. The famous Vaganova College is on the right. In it was renamed for the last time, becoming the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet. Early 20th-century photograph. She immediately saw what was wrong. She would never say to a pupil, Try this way! Agrippina Vaganova, ballerina and teacher. In she gave up the stage and turned to teaching. In her name was attached to the Leningrad Choreographic College. The school became the chief purpose of Akim Volynsky's life in his last years.
His Book of Exultation consisted primarily of lectures that he gave to the pupils and it was to them that he dedicated the work. In the past two years amid the tempests and events of our times the School of Russian Ballet has been for me a point of support in all respects.
There were moments when it seemed that the threads connecting me to the world around had snapped once and for all, but just then, in the most pessimistic minutes, some new ways, new paths suddenly appeared. Work began on converting an auditorium the hall that had once been used for the balls of the Noble Assembly. This required large financial investment. Volynsky gave his own money. The school's first public performance took place on 2 June Volynsky opened a boarding school for poor children and organized full board for forty pupils.
Money was short and so, in the spirit of the New Economic Policy, he decid. Akim Volynsky centre with members of the board of the World Literature publishing house, including the translator Mikhail Lozinsky seated, far leftthe writer Yevgeny Zamiatin seated on the far right and the critic Kornei Chukovsky at the front. Photograph taken by Moisei Nappelbaum in Petrograd on 15 January They bought a projection room, found a projectionist, a ticket-seller, two ushers, and recruited some musicians.
The cinema was given the name Bright Band. But Akim Volynsky's brainchild was not destined for a long life. In the troubled mids erstwhile allies left the country or changed their place of work. Vaganova created her own ballet school in the former imperial college on Rossi Street. Legat went off to London. Volynsky was again left alone in the House of the Arts.
In the School of Russian Ballet closed down. Not a biography, but a hagiography Volynsky spent his last days at DISK in an armchair by the window of his top-floor room. He sat as always bolt upright, in a nightshirt, with a blanket covering his legs.
He was waiting to be admitted to a sanatorium in Detskoye Selo now Pushkin. But the necessary papers kept being delayed while his heart condition grew steadily worse — his swollen legs failed him and his hands grew numb. He was finally taken to the Obukhovo Hospital. Volynsky was not afraid of death.
While being admitted to hospital he behaved with complete indifference, asking no questions and making no requests. He regarded his illness with contempt, only raising his perplexed eyebrows. Akim Volynsky passed away on 6 July That was his only property. He was a true Communist. Like Leo Tolstoy his is not a biography, but a hagiography. A caricature of Akim Volynsky drawn by the writer Alexei Remizov.
The history of Martell, one of the oldest cognac houses, began in at the very end of the reign of the Sun-King Louis XIV, when Jean Martell established his own distillery.
At the oyster evening guests were able to sample an exquisite compliment from the chef, while French-style brunch was an invitation to a gastronomic journey around the Cognac region. But the most notable event of the Gourmet Week was, of course, a dinner by Eric Danger of four courses each accompanied by a Martell cognac of a different age. Exquisite taste, fine serving… Tartare of sea bass seasoned with salted lemon skin is a true gastronomic work of art, as are Eric Danger's other culinary creations.
Eric Danger achieved complete mutual understanding with the Taleon Club's own chefs. The cognac house of Martell is a symbol not only of refinement and age-old traditions, but also of experimentation.
Its credo is not to rest on its laurels, to be constantly searching and to make new discoveries, in the field of haute cuisine as elsewhere. The menu that Eric Danger presented at the Taleon Club was devised by him in collaboration with the cellar master of the Martell cognac house.
The aroma of cognac and cigars, live French music and superb food pleased all those who attended. At the end of they evening, when Eric Danger came out to inquire whether they had enjoyed their dinner, the Taleon Club guests greeted him with applause. But they should not simply accord with the taste of the cognac. We never forget that Martell is one of the oldest luxury cognac brands and so the foods should also be refined. And of course we take into account the gastronomical preferences of the place in which we are going to present our menu.
Particular ingredients need to be added or strengthened, others reduced or excluded in accordance with the tastes of our guests. Russians, for example, have a certain leaning towards fatty foods, and so foie gras appears on the menu. The hot starter consisted of sea scallops with sesame seeds, vanilla and carrot emulsion. For the main course there was a choice of quail stuffed with foie gras or a rolled steak of veal with dried fruits, mustard and coriander. For dessert there was chocolate cake with melted chocolate inside, served with an orange sauce, or chocolate sorbet with a crispy citrus stick.
Each course was accompanied by its own drink. With the cold starter guests were served a cocktail from the Martell cognac house, with the hot starter V. When dinner was over guests were offered aromatic cigars presented by the Hecho a Mano society of cigar connoisseurs. When choosing a cognac, just as when choosing a good restaurant or a beautiful woman, you ought to follow nothing but your own taste. Chocolate cake served with an orange sauce or chocolate sorbet with a crispy citrus stick form an ideal combination with Martell cognac according to Eric Danger.
In St Petersburg it will be presented in the Taleon Club. Alfred Nobel visited Vienna many times. The city's civilized quality attracted him and that is why he chose to advertise for a secretary there.
The length of a cigar is the length of your enjoyment. The largest cigar regularly manufactured in the world is the inch Honduran Cuba Aliados General. But that is not the limit. You could make the enjoyment from one of those last several days, provided of course that you can get it lit. Some huge cigars can be found in Stockholm's Tobacco and Matches Museum. The cigars made specially to win a place in the Guinness Book of Records have long since passed the metre mark!
The Taleon Club Cigar Salon does not go chasing after appearances: here you are offered only record-holders in the area of taste — the finest Cuban and Dominican cigars. Alfred Nobel was one of the most educated people of his time, a gifted scientist, brilliant inventor and one of the richest industrialists. Yet he was an unhappy and sickly man, suffering from hypochondria.
He patented inventions in different fields of science. Contemporaries found his behaviour contradictory and paradoxical, wholly out of keeping with the image of a successful capitalist at the time. Besides a high-sounding aristocratic name the Countess had no assets whatsoever. She had originally taken an engagement as the post of governess in the family of Baron von Suttner, but did not stay long.
Passion unexpectedly flared up between. Bertha was immediately shown the door. The newspaper advertisement seemed a tempting idea: she pictured the would-be employer, who lived in Paris, as a respectable elderly gentleman and decided to write to him. The lively correspondence that rapidly ensued led to Bertha being offered the vacant position. She set off for France. The gentleman proved to be far from elderly — he was a very spry year-old with a dark beard and gentle blue eyes.
The duties of his secretary did not strike her as onerous, rather the opposite: the greater part of her working hours was taken up by intellectual conversations and strolls around the parks of Paris, visits to restaurants and theatres. What were those long talks about? Bertha proved to be a highly educated and well-read woman. Soon she told him about her unhappy love affair.
The gentleman expressed genuine sympathy and tried to make a comfortable home for her, even hiring a fashion. The book was translated into many languages and much quoted. Leo Tolstoy praised it. Bertha von Suttner was the first woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
Caroline Andriette Ahlsell Nobel, the mother of the Nobel brothers, died in Portrait by Anders Leonard Zorn. For his scientific papers and organizing the manufacture of submersible mines Emmanuel Nobel was given an award personally by Emperor Nicholas I. Alfred Nobel was a pioneer in the production of explosives, but soon he acquired a large number of competitors.
Some developed their own methods of manufacturing explosives, others exploited the lack of patent laws in certain countries to use his technology.
There were also clandestine factories. But the idyll soon came to an end. Bertha received a letter from Arthur in which he threatened to commit suicide if she would not marry him. He was even prepared to break off relations with his family for her sake.
What woman can resist a call from the heart? Bertha rushed to see her beloved, forgetting everything. Her employer was completely crushed by this turn of events, since he had managed to fall in love with her himself! He did not want to contemplate any other secretary, although there was no shortage of people seeking the post: even then his was a name that had literally shaken almost the whole world.
The man was Alfred Nobel. Save me! Calm down. What scared you? You had no business discussing people being buried alive in his presence. You know how impressionable he is! The Explosion of an Underwater Mine. From a painting by the Swedish inventor Ferdinand Tollin.
Midth century. A special coffin with openings in the lid, so that air can get in. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, whom his mother affectionately called Elf, was indeed a sickly child, at least in comparison with his older brothers, Robert and Ludwig Nobel.
His childhood was spent in Stockholm, where the family lived very modestly, and his father — an inventor, architect and builder — tried to find application for his talents in Russia.
Inwhen he managed to get a contract from the Russian government to make submersible mines, Emmanuel Nobel brought his family to St Petersburg. It was here that the youngest son, Emil, was born. The income from making mines made it possible to give the boys a good education. The best tutors were invited to their home, including the outstanding Russian chemist Nikolai Zinin. It was Zinin who demonstrated to Alfred and his father the properties of nitroglycerin, recently discovered by the Italian scientist Ascanio Sobrero.
The small explosion that Zinin produced amazed Alfred, but at that moment. Nikolai Zinin, an outstanding Russian organic chemist, gave private lessons in chemistry to Alfred Nobel. Alfred's father wanted him to continue his education abroad. His mother was against the idea. Emmanuel insisted. You don't really think that he's going to spend his whole life hiding behind your skirts? What's he going to do?
Write his weepy verses? He's going to be a businessman, an entrepreneur! He simply must get a good education! Wounds to the Heart The first thing year-old Alfred did when he reached Paris was to fall in love with all the ardour of youth. Dropping into a pharmacy one evening, he found there an enchanting creature — a young lady with high colour in her cheeks and There Is A Time - Нана Мускури* - Розы Любят Солнце (Vinyl sparkling eyes.
Alfred Nobel in his youth. Midth-century photograph. When Alfred was studying languages he translated texts by Voltaire from French into English and back again. Inspired by the poetry of Shelley and Byron, he wrote verses not only in Swedish, but also in English. He had a perfect command of six European languages, including Russian.
Emil Nobel, Alfred's younger brother, was killed in the autumn of by an explosion that took place during experiments with nitroglycerin. The explosives produced by Nobel's factories were not always used for peaceful purposes. In the s a wave of terrorist acts swept across Europe. The Nobel plant in Heleneborg, Stockholm after the tragic blast in Alfred Nobel's laboratory in San Remo. Nobel moved here in and continued the researches he began in Paris.
He hired the British chemist Hugh Beckett as his lab assistant. Where are you from? It makes us compatriots and I have been longing to speak my mother tongue! A container for nitroglycerin, a liquid formed by mixing glycerine with sulphuric and nitric acids. The plant making nitroglycerin in the Scottish town of Ardeer. The photograph shows one of those hills. Circa The dynamite-making process at Ardeer. They passed the evenings strolling hand in hand along the boulevards and streets of Paris.
But soon it emerged that the young lady was ill: her high colour, the feverish brilliance of her eyes and her dry cough were symptoms of galloping consumption. After her death Alfred poured out his anguish in gloomy romantic poetry in English : You say I am a riddle — it may be for all of us are riddles unexplained. Begun in pain, in deeper torture ended. This breathing clay what business has it here? Another wound to the heart. I need nothing more! Women avoid me, I am not made for family life.
His younger brother Emil helped him and soon they invented the detonator. Nitroglycerin, which had previously been an uncontrollable force, was now in their power! But Robert was worried about his younger brothers' obsession with science.
In the sum. Above left. The process of mixing dynamite at the Isleten plant in Switzerland. Until the s mixing was done by hand; after that the process was mechanized.
An advertisement for Alfred Nobel's German dynamite company. One of Alfred Nobel's industrial projects. Oil rigs on the Caspian. It engaged in the extraction and refining of oil in the area around Baku and owned pipelines, tankers and railway tank wagons.
Some of the company's installations, such as storage tanks, are still in use today. In September a nitroglycerin blast claimed the lives of Emil and four laboratory assistants. Still, nothing could stop Alfred. The demand for explosives was growing and he was not only a gifted scientist, but also an exceptionally dynamic entrepreneur. The world was shaken by a succession of terrible explosions caused by the incorrect storage or transport of nitroglycerin. There was talk of a ban on the transportation of explosives.
Their relationship lasted 18 years, almost until Alfred's death. Workers making sulphuric acid at Nobel's Vinterviken plant near Stockholm. Many of Nobel's factories produced not just nitroglycerin, but also the acids needed to make it.
His business grew with every passing year, but demanded enormous toil: bureaucratic obstacles, swindlers, incompetent subordinates and competitors… He had to write up to a hundred letters a day and travel all over Europe… And he still had his passion for science.
Happily some of his factories he owned dozens of enterprises in over twenty countries had research laboratories. But Nobel's interests were wider than just business and science. He appreciated art, adored the theatre, composed verses in. Why didn't Nobel include a prize for achievement in mathematics in his will? Several explanations have been put forward. According to Swedish historians the reason was Alfred's long-running quarrel with the eminent Swedish mathematician Professor Magnus Gustaf Mittag-Leffler.
The exact reason why the two fell out is not known. Alfred Nobel was constantly concerned about his health and often visited spa towns. Sometimes he was joined by Sofie Hess. Morals at such resorts were not as rigid as in the prim and proper European capitals and people paid little attention to this odd couple. English and at the end of his life even published a play entitled Nemesis, which was considered scandalous and sacrilegious.
The entire print-run, apart from a few copies, was destroyed. The city attracted him not only with its convenient geographical location from which he could easily reach his factories in neighbouring countriesbut also its heady social life. Nobel visited the theatres and art exhibitions, struck up acquaintances with the artistic bohemians and rubbed shoulders with celebrities. But at society parties and in his enormous mansion he felt lonely.
He hit upon the idea of hiring a secretary for business. Sadly not for long… But Alfred would correspond with her to the end of his life. After leaving her employer, Bertha did marry her beloved Arthur. Soon the newlyweds had to leave Austria. They settled down in Tiflis and lived there for almost ten years.
The Russo-Turkish War of inspired both spouses to take up the pen. Arthur became a war correspondent, Bertha preferred fiction. Nobel donated money to support anti-war organizations on several occasions.
But he spent far more impressive sums of money on a certain Sofie Hess. Alfred met her at one of the European spa towns. The pretty girl from a poor family was. She prattled fondly, dropped a curtsey and smiled ingratiatingly at her admirer. And so young!
She looks at me with such admiration! A wonderful girl! Not too well educated, but that can be corrected…. So, he brought Sofie Hess back to Paris, rented a smart apartments for her and hired servants. Dressses, gloves, veils, ruffs, hats, trinkets and jewellery. Her whims did not come cheap. Sofie was constantly demanding money and sent on to Alfred monstrous bills that he paid without demur.
In Scandinavian mythology the troll is a stupid. Sofie began to use this name with evident pleasure, using it to sign letters teeming with spelling mistakes. When he found out, Alfred was furious. Left above. She demanded as much money as possible and did not want to learn. The miracle did not happen: she remained a semi-literate, illbred, grasping flower-girl.
At first the spelling mistakes in Sofie's letters touched Alfred, then they began to irritate and finally they really drive him wild. In actual fact, Sofie was forty-three. To the end of his days Alfred never discovered the truth about her age. All you had to do was to become that someone, but you on your part did everything to make that. The mansion is close to the Arc de Triomphe and the Bois de Boulogne. Still he continued to provide her regularly with money.
Last Will and Testament In Sofie became pregnant, but tried to conceal the fact from Nobel, so as not to lose her income. The child's father was an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army. When Alfred did find out, he took the news calmly, saying that he wished her only well and would continue to send money. But it was not enough for the high life that Sofie had become accustomed to. In she married her child's father and demanded an increase in her allowance.
Nobel did not answer her letters. Sofie was indignant. One of the last photographs of Alfred Nobel. One hundreds years after the award of the first Nobel Prizes a Nobel Museum was formed in Stockholm to mark the anniversary. In Nobel bought a villa in the Italian town of San Remo and left Paris for the moment: in France he was being accused of secretly selling his inventions abroad.
His health was failing, but he continued his scientific researches, managed patent work, sold old enterprises and bought new ones. But he was already in his twilight years. Greatest virtues: keeps his nails clean and is not a burden on anyone. Greatest shortcomings: lack of a family, bad character, poor health and digestion, but a good appetite.
Sole wish: not to be buried alive. Important events in his life: None. In his famous last will and testament of 27 November he established prizes for the greatest achievements in the realms of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, for a contribution to literature and for the cause of peace. In his will Nobel specifically stated that after his death a doctor should open his arteries to make certain he was dead and then his body was to be cremated. Alfred Nobel's death-mask and a certificate of his membership in the French Cremation Society.
In his will he left money to societies promoting cremation. In Nobel specified that before his own cremation a doctor should cut open his arteries — the fear of being buried alive haunted the inventor all his life. In Besieged Sebastopol. From a painting by Konstantin Filippov. When we the assistants returned to the dressing station after a brief rest in the tents, I remember we several times found Nikolai Ivanovich already operating with the aid an orderly, the guard and a nurse.
Cots, stretchers… The air is full of the vapours of blood and chloroform. The wounded arrive in the huge ballroom of the Sebastopol Noble Assembly around the clock. The stream does not stop even at night: doctors and medical orderlies move between the rows of cots lighting their way with candles. The white hoods of nursing sisters flit to and fro, bringing the suffering tea and wine and the surgeons ligatures to tie up blood vessels and lint for the wounds.
A separate large Album) has been turned into an operating theatre, presided over by a man whose skills are already legendary in Russia. And not just in Russia. It's a special case you see… the Cat. Can't you see what's going on? I have dozens of patients waiting for me. Every second is precious. What can we do for animals, when people are dying? With a bayonet wound in the belly. The Legend and Glory of Sebastopol And so two legendary figures in the defence of Sebastopol met in the operating.
The Cat had carried the bodies of his comrades from the field beneath a hail of bullets and on one occasion he saved Vice-Admiral Vladimir Kornilov, who commanded the defence of the Crimean port city, from death: snatching up a bomb that had dropped at the commander's feet, the sailor flung it into a great kettle of porridge standing nearby and by doing so extinguished the fuse.
Nikolai Pirogov and the Sailor Piotr Koshka. From a painting by Leonty Kostelianchuk. Military surgeon Eduard Kulenkamp, one of the heroes of the defence of Sebastopol. Photograph from the Kulenkamp family archive. The surgeon was revered not only for his work in the operating theatre. He was obliged to fight on two fronts: on one against the enemy attacking and bombarding the city; on the other against thieving quartermasters and the useless leadership of the army. The immense sums that the state allotted to the war were mysteriously disappearing: there was a shortage of ammunition, equipment, provisions, medicines and dressings.
They had heard rumours that the quartermasters were selling medical supplies to the enemy. Hundreds of wounded men lay in the streets and courtyards, without shelter or food. In the overfilled hospitals they lay on the bare floor awaiting dressing or an operation. When the chloroform ran out, the screams of the patients filled the operating theatres. Gangrene was rife and there were outbreaks of typhus. One of his most important achievements. The Main Building of the University in the s.
From an watercolour by A. Yefrem Mukhin, one of the founding fathers of Russian surgery. From an engraving by Alexander Frolov. A depiction of the university on the gable wall of a house in Tartu formerly Dorpat, even earlier Yuryev.
One has to listen to what people coming back from Sebastopol say about what Pirogov did there and how he did it! There is not a soldier at Sebastopol not to mention the officersnot a soldier's or sailor's wife, who would not bless the name of Pirogov or teach their child to pronounce the name with reverence. When the war is over those sailors, soldiers, women and children will carry the name of Pirogov to all corners of Russia; it will fly to places that popularity in Russia has never reached before.
Under Pirogov nursing sisters appeared in the Russian army for the first time. The surgeon became world famous for the idea of using plaster casts for the treatment of battlefield fractures that had previously meant amputation.
It is said that during the truces when the wounded were being cleared from the battlefield French medics tried to discover from their Russian colleagues how Monsieur Pirogoff did it.
This physician, known to the whole of Moscow, came in out of the frost, tossed his fur coat onto a servant's arm and swept with dignity into his patient's room. He made his examination, felt the pulse, wrote a prescription and made witty remarks.
And the illness slackened its grip. This figure made such an impression on the young Nikolai that he invented a game of. The Gendarmenmarkt square in Berlin. From a lithograph by an unknown artist of the first half of the 19th century. Johann Friedrich von Dieffenbach, the founding father of German plastic surgery. From an engraved portrait by Johann Friedrich Bolt. But in time Nikolai acquired other interests. He learnt to read and quickly went through all the books in the house.
Soon he was sent to a private boarding school run by Vasily Kriazhev. But the boy was not destined to complete the course in that institution: the family, in.
After the Operation. They preferred practice over theory, however, and were not particularly knowledgeable in anatomy. His father, an official in the War Department, was slandered and made liable to pay what was a considerable sum of money for the time — 30, roubles.
Troubles came over the Pirogov household one after another. There were, admittedly, also happy events. One of them was the year-old Nikolai's enrolment in Moscow University. But his papers said he was already sixteen: his father had persuaded a priest to alter the boy's age in his birth certificate. In his memoirs Nikolai Pirogov remembered with gratitude the old family friend Yefrem Mukhin, who advised the young man to continue his studies at Dorpat University in Estonia, where the best students went in pursuit of higher degrees.
Under Mukhin's influence Pirogov chose to specialize in surgery. Dorpat now Tartu was known at that time as a city of students. Here Pirogov made the acquaintance of the former naval officer Vladimir Dahl, who by that time had resigned his commission and taken a degree at Dorpat and presented a thesis on surgery. Moyer himself became a friend and mentor to Pirogov, who in contrast to many of his fellows shunned noisy student gatherings and spent all his spare time in study and medical experiments.
Lectures, experiments, the clinic and the dissecting room. After passing the exams for a doctorate in medicine, he presented a thesis in which he pointed out errors in the work of the some of the most prominent surgeons of the day. From a painting by I. While still a student the future great chemist and discoverer of the Periodic Table was one of Pirogov's patients. Soon Pirogov was sent to Germany on a study trip.
Honesty is Rewarded a Hundredfold The two years abroad flew by. A letter had already arrived from Russia asking what university he would like to have a chair in. Moscow, of course, only Moscow! He missed his mother and sisters, who were living in poverty after the death of his father.
Now he would have sufficient funds to support them. But fate disrupted all his plans: on the way to Moscow Pirogov fell seriously ill and ended up in the military hospital at Riga. For several weeks he was confined to his bed and when he got better he started to perform operations at the hospital. There were many who wanted to observe the young surgeon's skills with the knife.
Late 19th century. He was unable to sit idle while waiting for ministry's decision: he operated for days on end at the Obukhovo Hospital and in the evening lectured to white-haired professors and doctors who included Nikolai Arendt, the personal physician to Nicholas I. This is not surprising — much that Pirogov spoke of was unknown even to his own teachers. In the mortuary of the Obukhovo Hospital, by the dim light of tallow candles, a new, hitherto unknown science was born — surgical anatomy.
After getting his chair in Dorpat, Pirogov devoted all his time to medicine: operations, lectures, research… He did not operate just in Dorpat: with his assistants he travelled Soon Pirogov moved on to Dorpat, where the disheartening news reached him that the chair in Moscow intended for him had been given to another talented surgeon, Fiodor Inozemtsev.
All his plans collapsed. When he learnt what had happened, Professor Moyer offered his former pupil work at the clinic in Dorpat and then the post of head of department at the university. His appointment had to be confirmed in St Petersburg and Pirogov set off for the capital.
A device for administering ether as an anaesthetic made on Pirogov's instructions. Picture from an illustrated aid to the study of human anatomy. Below right. Printed in Edinburgh by John Paterson. Hundreds of people longed to put themselves under his knife. Soon he published his first works — the old professors gave them a hostile reception, but the younger ones hailed them enthusiastically. In Pirogov went off to Paris. He had heard much about the French school of surgery.
Nikolai Pirogov. But Paris disappointed Pirogov. He was interested not in the palaces and shops, but the hospitals and those were not outstanding for their cleanliness or order. The mortality rate turned out to be very high. He was even more disappointed by the eminent French surgeons who gave him privatissima — paid lessons at home.
That's right — at home! Pirogov could not imagine how you might learn surgery not in the operating theatre or mortuary, but sitting in an armchair by the fire. Nothing but talk! He was offered a chair at the Military Medical Academy but without a clinic. He turned it down: surgery without practice turns into empty talk. His counterproposal — that the Second Land Forces Hospital be given to his department as a clinic — was unexpectedly accepted. There was, admittedly, a lot of bureaucratic red tape along the way, but in the spring of Pirogov took up his new post.
He pictured the capital as a boundless field for research and teaching work. The reality proved far less appealing: his lectures did indeed draw crowds of students and the merely curious; he was overrun with pupils and patients; the press sang his praises; but the state of the surgical hospital was horrifying: stuffy and insanitary with a lack of medicines and bad food.
Pilfering was regarded as an everyday, all but legitimized occurrence. The suppliers brought foodstuffs bought at public expense directly to the homes of the management; the pharmacists gave the patients ash, bull's bile or oil instead of medicines. Dressings and bed linen were reused repeatedly without any sort of processing — concepts such as disinfection did not exist back then. When Pirogov dared to speak out against theft and intolerable conditions in the clinic he was accused of overusing narcotics and then rumours were put about that he had.
To demonstrate the advantages of anaesthesia, in Pirogov volunteered to go to the Caucasus, where Russia was fighting a war with the mountain peoples. He witnessed the two-month siege of the aul village of Salty, lived in an army tent and operated on the wounded by day and night. In he travelled to Bulgaria, where the RussoTurkish War was being waged. As a doctor he could not just look on when Russian blood was being shed. Zimnitsa in Bulgaria.
Exterior view of the Russian military hospital. An interior view. Members of the Taleon Club and guests of the Taleon Imperial Hotel can make use of a high-speed launch specially built to commission at the famous North American Monterey shipyard. Its reliable construction guarantees passengers' safety both in the Gulf of Finland and on the restless waters of Lake Ladoga. A protective awning on the upper deck, a sunbathing area and a swimming platform with a ladder provide for a pleasant experience on the water whatever the weather.
The launch is equipped with everything necessary for comfortable long-distance trips. Today Pirogov's former estate houses a national museum devoted to his memory. The great Russian surgeon's embalmed body has lain in the small family church on the estate for almost years. The manor house of the Vishnia estate. The pharmacy at Vishnia. Present-day photographs. He did not give in. Many of the operations he carried out were considered excessively daring, but thanks to him surgery took great strides forward.
After painstaking work in the dissecting room in Pirogov began publishing in parts A Complete Course in the Applied Anatomy of the Human Body and invested his own money in the publications. The idea of plaster casts came to Pirogov through his friendship with the sculptor Nikolai Stepanov. While watching him at work, the surgeon's attention was caught by pieces of hardened plaster — a material that was destined to change so much in medicine. The defence of Sebastopol would prove that.
In October a revolution took place in surgery: the first operation was performed using ether as an anaesthetic. European surgeons began using ether in their operations. In Russia Fiodor Inozemtsev was the pioneer.
Pirogov lagged behind his one-time fellow student by a week: his concern was not being first, but being sure that ether would not harm the patient. That is why he made a careful study of how the substance affected the organism. The Interrupted Letter. From a painting by Vasily Vereshchagin. Far left. The community of nursing sisters for the aid of the wounded on the battlefield was founded on 5 November on the initiative of Grand Duchess Yelena Pavlovna the wife of Nicholas I's youngest brother, Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich.
The concept of the organization was devised by Nikolai Pirogov. It was an extraordinarily strange act for a physician for whom medicine was the whole meaning of life. The cause was the intrigues of his enemies in St Petersburg. Here at least I do not see the bureaucratic faces that dispirit life, mind and heart which willy-nilly I encounter every day in Petersburg. After the Attack. A Dressing Station at Plevna. He had barely left the Academy, when he was offered the post of the trustee of the Odessa school district.
Pirogov set about this new job with passionate zeal: not a single trifle escaped his attentive eye. But Pirogov's activities as trustee were not to everyone's liking.
Denunciations flew to St Petersburg. As a result he was forced to transfer to the same post in the Kiev school district. Pirogov managed to do a lot in Kiev, but his greatest achievement was the opening across the district of free schools operating on Sunday for the children of craftsmen and.
Yet Pirogov's enemies engineered his resignation from this post too. For a time he lived on his estate at Vishnia near Vinnitsa in the Ukraine, but within the year he was invited to supervise young Russian scholars studying at universities abroad. In Pirogov settled in Heidelberg with his wife and sons. He himself was constantly on the move, inspecting educational institutions and giving the necessary assistance to his charges.
During this period he also spent time in the Italian town of La Spezia, where Garibaldi lay wounded — probably the most famous of all Pirogov's patients. After four years Pirogov return to Vishnia for a holiday. He did not, however, know how to be idle: wherever he was in Odessa, Kiev or his own estate he received patients and performed operations. Inat the. In he travelled to Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish War. Pirogov managed to get everywhere — Zimnitsa, Svishtov, Turnovo; at Plevna he inspected the hospitals, looked over the hospital trains, suggested methods of combatting typhoid and improved the system for transporting the wounded.
And of course he operated, although his age was making itself felt: his eyesight was worsening and his hand lacked its former steadiness. Pirogov spent his last years at Vishnia, writing scientific works and memoirs. In May Pirogov's professional jubilee — 50 years as a physician — was celebrated in Moscow, but before the year was out the great surgeon died.
I love the honour of my homeland, but not its officials. Sketch by Ilya Repin. The artist made sketches for his planned painting directly at the railways station. A little later he produced a portrait and a bust of the great surgeon. At the end of Augusta time when, after their defeat in Russia, Napoleon's forces were desperately trying to hold back the onslaught of the allied armies of Russia, Austria, Prussia and Britain, a court martial was being held in Paris. The man on trial was Antoine-Henri Jomini.
The list of the defendant's titles, ranks and decorations sounded very impressive: baron, brigadier general, member of the Order of St Louis 1st class and of the Legion of Honour, chief of staff in Marshal Ney's corps.
The charge sounded no less impressive: high treason. The sentence was death by firing squad. However, the accused was not in court to hear the verdict. Antoine-Henri Jomini was not in France. The trial was held in his absence while he was actually in Prague, at the headquarters of the allied forces of the Album) against Napoleon, already in the capacity of a general in the Russian army!
By the age of 34 Antoine Henri Jomini was already a general two times over — in the French and Russian armies. Engraving after a portrait of the late s. The blameworthy act is to some degree excused by the circumstances. He was not a Frenchman; love of his country did not restrain him. Military theoretician Swiss.
From an early age he showed an exceptional interest in military matters. The proud, quick-tempered, single-minded youngster avidly read books on the history of warfare, strategy and tactics and was preparing to enter a military college. But it did not work out: his father, an official in the municipal administration, was against the idea.
The young Jomini did a course at a commercial school and was invited to work in one of the banking houses in Paris. This is something of an aside, though, as commercial matters still did not occupy Jomini's mind. He devoted all his free time to work on a. Portrait of Marshal Ney at Elchingen.
From a painting by Albrecht Adam. First quarter of the 19th century. During this battle Ney oversaw the repair of a bridge over the Danube while under enemy fire and then led a bayonet attack. The Battle of Austerlitz. From a painting by Johann Lorenz Rugendas. The French won a convincing victory at what is now Slavkov u Brna in the Czech Republic and completely changed the balance of political power in Europe.
From a hand-tinted engraving by an unknown artist of the first quarter of the 19th century. The Austrian forces in Ulm were surrounded by the French army commanded by Napoleon.
General Mack surrendered without waiting for Russian forces to arrive. Emperor Napoleon I. Bust by Lorenzo Bartolini. The first two volumes were completed by The problem was that not a single publisher was willing even to read the young man's bulky oeuvre, although he had had by then caught a whiff of powder in when the revolutionary French overran Switzerland, Jomini was given a minor staff post in the army of the short-lived Helvetic Republic and in even commanded a battalion.
The novice author did not have enough money to publish it himself. His father refused to help. But Antoine-Henri. Jomini did not despair: he knew his worth even then. Jomini made him the following proposal: the embassy would pay for publication and in return the author would dedicate his opus to Alexander I and agree to enter Russian service.
Have you travelled recently? Have you worked hard lately? Susan has already taken books to the library. Susan hasn't made lunch yet. She hasn't written a letter to Granny yet. Susan has already given a call to Betty. Susan has already sent a telegramme to Daddy. Susan hasn't swum in the pool yet. Susan hasn't read the novel up to the end. Susan has already drunk the milk.
They have always lived in this city. They always buy return tickets. He always takes pictures when he travels. She has always known this photographer. We have always wanted to go to Paris.
My friend has always lived in Paris. I have always had an album with stamps. I have always collected stamps. Do you always take little luggage with you? Arrival is a place at a station where people come when they get off a plane or a train. Information is a place at a station where you can find out what you need about arrival and departure of a plane of a train.
Customs is a place where a customs officer checks you luggage. Meeting point is a place at a station where people meet those who have arrived. Passport control is a place where an officer checks your passport. Departure is a place at a station from where you board a plane or a train. Check-in is a place at a station where you go when you arrive. Kirk has bought his new friend a hat because Zardak had little silver horns on his head. Yes, he did. Zardak arrived in London on Thursday. No, he doesn't.
Zardak lives on planet Vecon. It is true. Zardak has never been to Earth. It is his first visit No, she hasn't. Mrs Evans has never heard of Vecon. No, it isn't. Vecon is a planet. No, he hasn't. Zardak hasn't got an American accent. No, they aren't. Mr Kirk and Zardak are not really in a hurry. Mrs Evans has been to California three times. Mr Kirk met Zardak in the park. Zardak was an alien from planet Vecon. He was fond of travelling.
He had little silver horns on his head. Zardak has seen nothing in London yet because he hasn't gone out yet. Mr Kirk bought Zardak a hat because Zardak had little silver horns on his head and people could see them. Zardak made Mr Kirk agree to go to the city centre with the help of these horns. He didn't tell Mrs Evans the truth because she wouldn't believe it.
She wants to ask: "Where is it? Mr Kirk wanted to finish their talk because Zardak could tell Mrs Evans that he wasfrom the planet Vecon. And Mr Kirk said that they were in a hurry. Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge. No, I don't travel often.
Last I travelled in summer. I travelled to the seaside. I travelled there by train. The quickest method of travelling is by plane. The most comfortable one is by train. People usually travel by air if they want to get to the farthest places of the earth. I think that it is interesting to travel by sea but I haven't done it. My parents don't often travel by air. They buy tickets for the flight at the airport.
It is expensive to travel by plane. People prefer travelling by plane because it is the quickest way of travelling. People usually read newspapers when they are on the plane. They usually sleep when they are on the train. And they usually look through the window when they are on the bus.
Yes, I often travel by car. I think that it is comfortable and convenient. People travel by car because it is cheap. Yes, I have stayed at the hotel. It was very comfortable. The rooms were not very big. The food was rather tasty. It is fine weather in Moscow now.
It rained in London yesterday. It has been snowing in New York since Monday. It has been windy and cloudy in Paris since the 5 th of October. Mr Kirk was in the park one night. Zardak came from the planet Vecon. Mr Kirk took Zardak home. Zardak hasn't seen anything on the Earth yet. Zardak can watch televisionfrom his starship.
Zardak wants to make a tour about London. Mr Kirk and Zardak are in a hurry. Mr Nelson is an architect. He has built some modern cottages. Mr Kirk is a baker. He has become famous for his wonderful bread. Nelly is fond of painting. She has drawn funny pictures of animals. Jack is a postman. He has brought me so many letters and magazines. Angela is bad at mathematics. She has not learnt how to add well. He has not felt so bad since the operation. One day our family went to the river. It was a very sunny day.
Everybody was happy. We swam and played a lot. But when we wanted to have our breakfast it started raining. So we went home. And when we arrived at home everybody was angry. The National Gallery is situated in London.
The British Museum has got a big collection of paintings. The largest park in London is Hyde Park. There is a monument in the centre of Trafalgar Square. It is situated to the west of Europe. The longest river in Russia is Volga. Yury Dolgoruky founded the capital of Russia in Red square is the heart of Moscow. The birch tree is the most famous tree in Russia and it is its symbol. The Tower of London is a fortress near the river Thames built in the 11th century, It used to be a royal residence, a prison, a mint and a zoo; now it is a museum.
The Great Fire was in September, It destroyed most of the City of London. People rebuilt it later. At the end of the 20 th century London is an important political, cultural, historical and business centre of Great Britain. The name of the ship that sailed from England to America was The Mayflower.
There were no women on board The Mayflower. George Washington was the first president of the United States. There are 50 states in the United States. Washington D.
I am going to play the piano. Mary is going to play the guitar. John is going to learn to play the violin. Nick's sister is going to write songs for us.
My father is going to pay for the instruments. Tim is going to organize our concerts. We are going to become famous. The plane is arriving half an hour later. Myfriends are coming to Moscow for the weekend. My grandparents are moving in a newflat next week. When are they arriving? She is leaving St Petersburg in two days. Myfriends are coming to Moscow at the weekend. My grandparents are moving into a new flat next week. She is leaving for St. Petersburg in two days. Jane is arriving in Moscow at 5.
Fred and Bill are arriving in the city tomorrow. Elizabeth is coming to Paris the day after tomorrow. George's parents are coming to visit him next Friday. They are coming to the meeting at 7.
They are having a concert in a week. The engineers are having a conference in ten minutes. She is leaving for the airport at 2.
The Browns are leaving for London today. Jack is moving into a new flat on Sunday. Kate is moving to her summer cottage this spring. They are moving to the country house this afternoon. The Greens are going away to Turkey next month. He is going to Africa this evening. We are going to India in 5 days. Lomonosov was born in Gagarin was the first Russian cosmonaut and A.
Leonov was the first man to walk in space. Lomonosov was thefirst Russian academician. Lomonosovfounded Moscow University in Gagarin was from a small village near the city of Smolensk and he was interested in planes, spaceships and rockets.
James Cook was a seaman, traveller and discoverer. He made three voyages around the world. He discovered a lot of islands in the Pacific Ocean. George Washington was thefirst US president. He took part in the War of Independence. In Britain there are a lot of traditions. For example Guy Fawkes Day. In Russia we don't have such a holiday but we have Maslenitsa that people in GB don't have. From the beginning of the text to the end of the second paragraph - Customs and traditions in GB.
From the beginning of die third paragraph to the end of the fourth paragraph - English customs and holidays. Thefifth paragraph - Russian holidays. The sixth paragraph - International Holidays Patrick's Day in Ireland - 17th March, the national day of Ireland. People wear green clothes, dye flowers green and go to the pub. Russian symbols are Red Square, St. Basil's Cathedral, a birch, pancakes, wide fields. British symbols are, the monarchy, kings and queens, the Big Ben, the Houses of Parliament, double-deckers, cabs, pubs.
American symbols are the democracy, the Statue of Liberty, the eagle, hamburgers. What famous people do you know? When and where were they born? What were they? Why did they become famous? Do people in these countries still remember them? How many people are you going to invite? What time will the party start? Where are you going to have the party?
Who will cook the food? What will you wear? Will you help me to learn something about the American and British symbols? Sure, I will. Will people laugh at this idea? No, of course, they won't. Will you tell me something about the main cities of Russia? Yes, of course, I will. Will you take me to the central square of your city? Will you tell me a few words about famous Russian people?
There are forests, mountains, lakes, rivers, seas on the earth. We can see plants, trees, animals in the forests and fields. I can see clouds, birds in the sky. There are more 7 continents countries in the world. In my favorite season it is hot, the sun shines brightly in the sky. But sometimes it rains. I can swim a lot. I have my big holidays, that is why I go to the seaside. The weather is usually fine. There are a lot of flowers and fruit.
We can spend a lot of time in the open air. We can play many games outside. I like this season very much. A channel, an ocean can separate two continents. I'm Russian. Yes, they are. No, it doesn't. The English Channel separates England and France. We call a person curious when he asks a lot of questions. God Save the Queen. The sun rises very early and sets late in summer. It is very long. I used to eat a lot of sweets Last summer my family used to sunbathe. My friend used to wear warm boots.
He used to travel a lot. He used to eat a lot. He used to wear expensive clothes. He used to go to the seaside. He used to go to restaurants. He didn't use to be polite. He didn't use to help people. He didn't use to listen to advice. Did he use to go to a fitness centre?
Did he use to have friends? Did he use to enjoy himself? The smallest country in the world is the Vatican. The planet we live on is the Earth. You will be able to see land, seas, oceans, continents and even countries if you look at the Earth from space. There are four oceans on our planet. There are six continents. Seas and oceans separate continents from each other. Yes, there are many countries on continents, but there is only one country in Australia. Russia is the largest country in the world.
Europe: Russia, the capital is Moscow, the flag is white, blue and red; France, the capital is Paris, the flag is blue, white and red; Germany, the capital is Berlin, theflag is black, red and yellow. Asia: China, the capital is Peking, the flag is red and yellow; Vietnam, the capital is Hanoi, theflag is red and yellow, America: Canada, the capital is Ottawa, the flag is white and red; the USA, the capital is Washington DC, theflag is red, white and blue.
It is Australia. People speak English there. The capital is Canberra, the flag is blue withfive small stars and one big star. Also in the corner there is a small British flag. People speak English in Canada. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
The colours of the nationalflag are red and white. My name is Lorance. I'mfrom France. I'm French. My language is French. My name is Tony. I'm from Italy. I'm Italian. My language is Italian. My name is Lisa. I'm form Germany. I'm German. My language is German. My name is Carmen, There Is A Time - Нана Мускури* - Розы Любят Солнце (Vinyl. I'm form Spain. I'm Spanish. My language is Spanish.
My name is Hems. My name is George. I'm form Canada. I'm Canadian. My language is English. My name is Ahmad. I'm form Egypt I'm Egyptian. My language is Arabic. We can see the Earth from the space. We can see seas, oceans, continents.
The smallest country is the Vatican and the biggest is Russia. In countries there live people of different nationalities and they speak different languages.
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. They went on living in a small village. When we were little we used to play with toy elephants and other toy animals. What mountains separate Europefrom Asia? Where is Anna from? She is from France. She was born in Paris. French is her native language. What is the colour of the national flag of Russia? One day a Paris newspaper had an advertisement about a very cheap way of travelling.
Many people believed it and sent their money. A few days later each of them got a letter. Paris turns together with the Earth. You travel more than You may look out of the window and enjoy your journey. Berlin is in Europe.
It is in Germany. Rome is in Europe. It is in Italy. Delhi is in Asia. It is in India. Ottawa is in North America. It is in Canada. Madrid is in Europe. It is in Spain. Washington DC is in North America.
It is in the USA. Yury Gagarin flew into space in Valentina Tereshkova flew into space in Alexey Leonov flew into space in and in German Titov was in space in Andrean Nikolaev was in space in and in Alexey Leonov was the first Russian cosmonaut in the open space in Mary already knows English and she is learning the Italian language now Liza already knows French and she is learning the English language now Betty already knows Spanish and Arabic and she is learning the Russian language now.
The seas separate the continents. The mountains separate the countries. The forests separate the cities. The river separates the countries. The ocean separates the continents. The sea separates the islands. Bill used to take a holiday in the mountains in winter but now he doesn't.
Mary used to watch the sunset in the evening but now she doesn't. She also used to watch the sunrise in the morning and she doesn't do it, either John used to go fishing with his father early in the morning but now he doesn't. George used to be very curious when he was a child but now he isn't. Tom used to explore new territories when he was young but now he doesn't. Oh, no, he didn't. He used to cry very little. Oh, no, they didn't.
They used to explore the forests when they were in South America. She used to like fish. He used to work in at company. Oh, no, we didn't. We used to dislike each other. Oh, no, she didn't. She used to be interested in postcards. Oh, yes, he did. He used to be fond of animals. Did she really use to cook fantastic pancakes? Did he really use to be a scientist? Did she really use to be very much interested in science?
Did they really use to learn a lot about history and the main cities of Russia? Robert was speaking on the phone at 2. Nelly and Ann were moving in a Album) flat at The Greens were sailing to St.
Petersburg at 8. Pete and Jack were fighting with each other at 7. Bill was preparing for his classes at Andrew and Ted were listening to the music at 4. When Andrew came home, his grandparents were watching a feature film on TV. When Andrew came home, his father was reading a newspaper.
When Andrew came home, his uncle was looking through the magazine. When Andrew came home, his aunts were making jam. When Andrew came home, his cousins were playing with toys on the floor. When Andrew came home, his little brother was crying. While you were shopping I was making my bed. While you were shopping I was cooking dinner. While you were shopping I was washing the floor. While you were shopping I was making tea.
While you were shopping I was cleaning the carpet. While you were shopping I was cleaning the clothes. While you were shopping I was washing the window. Her children were watching TV, fighting with each other, reading a book, sleeping and playing football. People learn foreign languages nowadays People travel by plane nowadays. Most people travel by train nowadays. Many people travel by sea nowadays. People watch cartoons nowadays. Most people watch videos nowadays. People read a lot of books nowadays.
Most people read a lot of newspapers nowadays. Many people read a lot of magazines nowadays. We use pens to write letters. We use books to learn foreign language. We use kitchen to cook dinner. We use cups to drink coffee. We use glasses to drink mineral water. We use spoons to eat soup. You: I don't like football. Classmate : You don't say so. You: I've never travelled by plane. You: I've never been to the seaside. Classmate: You don't say so.
Helen is so much interested in English because a lot of people speak English and it is the most popular language nowadays. English, German and French are popular in Russia. English is the most popular language nowadays. It is spoken all over the world. People in many countries learn it. If you speak English people will understand you practically everywhere. Though they speak the same language there are some differences.
The Pacific Ocean washes it on the east. The Atlantic Ocean washes its western side. It is both a country and a continent. While the children were running their mother was reading a newspaper.
While my father was looking through the magazine my mother was cooking breakfast. While Ann was reading a novel her sister was playing. I was walking when I saw them in the street. I was sleeping when the telephone rang. Father was watching television when Peter came back home.
Ann was playing the flute at 3 o'clock yesterday and her brothers were playing the violin. While Fred was switching on the vacuum cleaner his wife was switching on the washing machine. While I was buying fruit I was talking to the greengrocer.
My father was repairing the central heating at 7 o'clock yesterday. Who was playing tennis when you entered the hall? Little Tom was looking at the map of Europe when his sister was telling him something about England. What were you doing when your grandmother was baking pancakes? While children were listening to the music their parents were watching the sunrise.
Moscow is in Europe. The Australian speak English. The Urals separate Europe from Asia. Egypt is in Africa. The national Russianflag is white, blue and red. John is a typical English name. The boys were painting when the teacher entered the room. The boys were washing the dishes when the phone rang. The boys are eating when their mother opened the door. The boys are swimming when the sun rose. I was having breakfast at 9 o'clock yesterday. I was watching TV at 11 o'clock yesterday.
I was reading a newspaper at 2 o'clock yesterday. I was working in the office at 5 o'clock yesterday. I was learning a foreign language at 7 o'clock yesterday. While he was cleaning his teeth in the bathroom the telephone rang.
It was his Granny. He spoke to his Granny for a few minutes. While he was having his breakfast the door bell rang. It was his friend.
While they were leaving for school they saw Robert's uncle from another city at the door. Robert let him in. While Robert was showing their flat to his uncle there was a telephone call from his father. He explained to him why he was at home with his uncle.
Is there a library near your house? Is the Folk Art Museum far from your house? Is the circus not far from your house? Is the picture gallery opposite your house? How long does it take you to get to the village from your house?
Is the building of the Art Exhibition to the right of your house? I studied yesterday. I went to my grandmother last Sunday. They came three days ago. I didn't use to read books when I was a child. I didn't use to watch TV when I was a child. I used to cry when I was a child. I used to play with toys when I was a child. I didn't use to go to school when I was a child.
I didn't use to play the guitar when I was a child. We need neitherfruit nor vegetables. We play neither the guitar nor the violin. The group has explored neither the land nor the ocean. She drinks neither water nor coffee after lunch. Yesterday neither Jack nor Steve ate pancakes and sour cream.
Neither Ann nor Jill is fond of honey. Johnny has saved a little child. Johnny has saved a cat. Johnny has saved a dog. Johnny has saved a bird. Johnny has saved an old man Johnny has saved a young girl. Two mice have hidden in the cupboard.
One mouse has hidden under the fridge. One mouse has hidden in the cup. One mouse has hidden in the plate. One mouse has hidden behind the bread. One mouse has hidden in the sink. One mouse has hidden in the drawer. One mouse has hidden on the shelf. Some animals are in danger because people have hunted them for many years. And animals often don't have forests to live in because people have cut down many trees.
Very often animals don't have fresh air and clean water. People have hunted and killed many tigers in India because tigers are very dangerous animals and people killed them to save their domestic animals and their lives. And some people have often hunted tigers for fun and for their beautiful skin.
They can easily sell the skin and get a lot of money as the prices are high. The life of the people on the Earth depends on the sun, on animals and plants around us. They are disappearing because people have hunted them for years.
Yes, elephants can be useful. They can be used as transport. Not only Indian elephants and African tigers are in danger. People must take special care of animals and nature. People on our planet depend on the sun, on animals and plants around them. Indian tigers and African elephants are among them.
People have hunted and killed a lot of tigers and now there are few of them. People hunted tigers for their beautiful skin. And prices for the skin are high. African elephants are in danger too. There are not many of them in African parks. Often they don't have clean water and enough space to live. And the air is not very fresh. You can find names of some fish in the Red Book too. People must take care of nature and animals. We must save them. In this country animals and birds are also in danger.
And we can't see animals in the forests because the forests are very dirty. The rivers are not clean. And of course people hunt animals. Nobody in this country thinks about how to save animals.
To help animals and birds we can keep our rivers and lakes, fields and forests clean. We must not pollute the air. We can feed birds. And we must stop hunting birds, animals and fish that are in the Red Book.
I was walking in the street when I saw a dog. The animal was in danger because there were many cars. The cars were coming very fast. And suddenly one struck the dog. The animal was killed at once. Would you like to come to my birthday party? I'd love to.
Feb 17, · 50+ videos Play all Mix - Рай - Солнце и луна (Official Video) YouTube Сплин - Лучшее - Duration: Футболки С Принтами 33, views. Нана Мускури* Розы Любят Солнце (LP, Album, Whi) Мелодия: С60— USSR: Sell This Version/5(5). Нана Мускури* Розы Любят Солнце (LP, Album, Whi) Мелодия: С60— USSR: Sell This Version. Солнце Лауры - Снег, аккорды, текст, mp3, видео. Intro Dm Bb A Dm Bb A Этот снег никогда не закончится Ты бредешь по городу и молчишь о чем-то И. There Is A Time: Down By The Greenwood Side: Tomorrow Is A Long Time: Sweet Surrender: Nicklels And Dimes: All Over The World: Розы Любят Солнце (LP, Album, Whi) Нана Мускури* Розы Любят /5(41). Наши» Солнце Лауры. Песен 5. Аккорды, Видео, Mp3, Тексты. 1. ГБУ СО Балаковский центр помощи семье и детям "Семья” Время работы - с до ежедневно без выходных и праздников. 2. МУ МВД России "Балаковское” Саратовской области Установлен в дежурной части УВД: ул. В этом ЖЖ мы обсуждали с вами такой вариант будущего. Кому-то из нас удалось сбежать из РФ, но для всех остальных очень интересная статья. Китаист Леонид Ковачич о китайском опыте тотального контроля над интернетом. May 15, · Солнце может уничтожить Землю скорее, чем вы думаете - Duration: balnalatelesupprosivadisbere.coinfo - Сайт о творчестве , views В небе над Челябинском во вторник утром взошли три солнца. Местные жители стали свидетелями оптического явления гало, которое можно наблюдать зимой в морозную погоду, сообщила корр. ТАСС главный синоптик.
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